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On the Ancestors

of JD Eduard Brzorád, a Young Czech member of the Austrian Imperial Council and the Diet of Bohemia.

Chronicles of the von Herites, von Krziwanek, Delorme and Brzorád families.

 

Written by Jan Steinbauer, translation © Mary Petersen

 

Email for your comments and additions:

Opredcich@seznam.cz

 

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Familie von Krziwanek

 

 

 

 

Introduction. 3

Krziwanek’s origin, the lordship of the manor Věž. 4

Václav Seegenschmied (1723- before 1789) and the origins of his property. 6

P. Joseph Knight Lodgman von Auen (1742-1813) 10

Jan Ludwig Krziwanek (1795-1861) JD. 17

About how Dr. Jan L. Křivánek founded the glassworks in Janštejn in 1827. 18

Edward Ernest Edler von Krziwanek (1799-1876), lord of Věž, the imperial and provincial deputy  20

Taufzeug and the Blue Memory Book. 24

Havlíček’s theater company. 30

Slavomil’s article on Věž’s industrial school in 1845. 37

Events of 1848. 42

Marie von Krziwanek (1834-1898) and JUDr. Eduard Brzorád (1820-1898) 49

Oil factory and the Krziwaneks in Brixen. 56

Ennoblement 77

Ernestine Baroness von Kutschera née von Krziwanek (1840-1877) and Karl Freiherr von Kutschera (1836-1890) 91

Eduard Karl Edler von Krziwanek (1844-1896), the owner of Věž. 102

Hermine von Krziwanek (1839-1908) and Julius Příborský (1824-1905) 108

Familie Prziborski 108

Familie Komers. 114

Anton Emanuel Ritter von Komers  (1814-1893) 115

Julius Prziborski (1824-1905) 120

Emanuell 'Mani' Prziborski (1859-1921) 134

Ella née Prziborski (1863-1936) and Captain Karl Hánl Edler von Kirchtreu (1848-1897). 135

Anselma née Prziborski (1863-1934) and JD Franz Ritter von Komers (1848-1935) 143

JUDr. Leo Prziborski-Voith-Herites (1867-1940) 149

Familie Porak de Varna. 149

Kurt Leo Julius Prziborski-Voith-Herites (1902-1943) 160

 

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Family trees

Name index

Supplements

 

Introduction[1]

 

Right at this point it would be useful to highlight the diversity of the spelling of the names Křivánek.  The many options we find are due to the great number found in the text citations fund in the sources.  For the same name we also find Skrivanek, Skřiwánek, Krivanek, Kržiwanek, Krziwanek, Křiwánek and the likes.

         Within an introduction to the humble origin of the Krziwaneks of Věž we will examine in detail the family of Bernard's father-in-law Václav Seegenschmied, who was a successful businessman and a weaver from Velké Meziříčí, who bought the estate with a castle in Věž for his daughter. We also note Bernard’s children godfathers such as Baron Joseph Langer from Langendorf, or activity of the descendant of an old Irish family, Knight and Canon Joseph Lodgman von Auen, who is financially independent former Jesuit who stayed in the Věž castle in the years 1780 - 1793.

         Of Bernard’s children we mention in more breadth J.D. Jan Krziwanek, who in 1827 founded a glass factory in Janštejn. Thereafter the focus moves on to his brother, a prominent farmer (E.g. his estate excelled in pig breeding and progressive methods of fertilization; he also tested brewing with distillery steam boilers).  This was Eduard von Krziwanek, member of the Diet of Bohemia and the Austrian Imperial Council and the defender of the German element. Our attention is also paid to his wife, "zealous Bohemian patriot" Caroline née Baroness von Herites, her scrapbook, baptismal suit and relationship to her friend and later related Countess Pachta.

         Thanks to found family albums the text is illustrated with numerous photographs, and drawings.  At the same time we pay attention to what is happening on the Věž estate, especially around the year 1848, when Eduard Krziwanek supported the Pan-German Frankfurt Parliament and comes to the forefront of political events. Thus we read about him in newspaper articles written by Havlicek Borovsky – who mentions him as “frankfurtoman”, or “amongst those for the German tricolor hankering masters”, or JK Tyl, who ranks him among “the renegades of the higher classes and other similar slyboots.”

         We read about Havlíček attending masked balls at the Krziwaneks in Věž, and about his participating in the theater in German as late as the 1840’s. The following are excerpts from Havlíček’s correspondence from Brixen on his feelings about an oil production plant - a joint venture of Eduard Krziwanek and Havlíček’s brother František, who respected his business partner. Also the Brixen meeting with the Krziwaneks will be described, showing also Havlíček’s respect and the joy of having a rare visit.

         Together with the announcement in Wiener Zeitung we read the lost wording of Krziwanek’s Adelsdiplom (grant of arms).  We do not finish the story with the death of a single, childless son, but we also read about families of his sisters.  One was married to Baron Kutschera, the second one connected this story with the careers of the prominent economists and farmers Anton Emanuel Knight von Komers and Julius Příborský.

         It is in this and the next generation that we will again touch upon issues of national identity of loyal Austrian citizens.  For example the Lanškroun episode is due to the role of Edward Krziwanek’s granddaughter, Anselma von Komers, who throws deputy chairman of Pan-German party as a troublemaker from the apartment into the hallway of the headquarters, remarkable.  Her twin sister Ella brings speech to the House of nobles  Hanl von Kirchtreu. The story is completed with the family of their brother Leo, who adopts the name Voith-Herites.  Thanks to his father in law, the wealthy and notable businessmen and an MP, Viktor Porák de Varna we get acquainted with the case of renobilitation trials, which could have affected the final transfer of the title of nobility.

 

 

Krziwanek’s origin, the lordship of the manor Věž

 

Much of this chapter will be devoted to the character of Edward Krziwanek and his offspring, but let's first start with how he came into possession of the Věž estate, to where Eduard later brought his bride Caroline.  We can start with the first Kržiwánek known to us, who was Thomas with his wife Anna.  They lived in Velké Meziříčí and there their son Jan Nepomuk Krziwanek was born in 1749.  We should mention the possibility that he later became Johann Nepomuk Krziwanek (05.05.1749 - April 19, 1828 Wostopitz) Doctor of Law and Philosophy, provincial lawyer, perhaps identical with Brno lawyer Jan Krivanek a member of the secret society of the Illuminati, who operated in the circles of Brno’s Masonic Lodge "Zu wahren Vereinigten Freunden” under the name Attilius Claudius.[2]  Here, however, we are interested in the other son, Bernard Jan Nepomuk Kržiwanek, born on 20th March 1763 in Velké Meziříčí.  There, in 1785, as a businessman, he married fifteen year old Mariana - Maria Anna (1771-1842), the daughter of a local merchant and citizen, Václav Seegenschmied.  Bernard's middle name Jan is skipped in the wedding registration and when he baptizes their son Edward, he will already be Bernard Laurenz (Lawrence), and this form we will continue to encounter.

         Václav Seegenschmied was apparently very wealthy, because in 1787 he bought the estate Věž with a castle near Německý Brod, today called Havlíčkův Brod. [3]

He bought this farm estate of 870 hectatres from Knight Degen, before whom Baron Moser lost his entire fortune on silver mining there.

 

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Castle Věž from the village in 2004

 

Probably the prettiest pictures of castle Věž can be found on a website blog of Petr Pechač.  Therefore I highly recommend that you visit the website http://pechacpetr.blog.cz/0805/zamek-ve-vezi

 

 

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Balcony from the garden in 2004

 

 

 

Václav Seegenschmied (1723- before 1789) and the origins of his property

 

A lot of information about the fabric merchant from Velké Meziříčí, Václav Seegenschmied (1723 - before 1789) and his family can be found in the works by Dr. Marie Ripperová[4]. Regarding the first generations of the Seegenschmieds  from Velké Meziříčí we read: "What was outwardly a more inert structure of local guild owners, hid the more dynamic changes which occurred between generations of burghers who lived from their crafts.  An example of these changes is the extended clan of Seegenschmieds whose members settled in the late 16th century as prosperous sickle makers.  In the mid-17th century they completely abandoned their original craft and undertook a one generation experiment as leather tanners and then permanently moved up in the ranks to become rich local stocking makers."[5]

            The first Seegenschmied in Meziříčí in the 17th century was the infamous Jan: "... Apart from municipal reeves the craft guilds of the town continue to cooperate in maintaining public order ... in order to preserve the reputation of their "honest craft.”  Their attention was especially turning toward apprentices, but also toward troubled masters.  Let’s mention from them all at least the stocking maker Jan Segeneschmied, who was punished by his Guild, both professionally and financially, for the breakup with his wife.”[6]

 

Next, we can draw continuously from a very precise work of Dr. Marie Ripperová, whose article “Textile Production in Velké Meziříčí in the 18th century”[7] provides comprehensive information on the origins of the wealth of the later owner of estate Věž, Václav Seegenschmied (1723-1789):

            "In the second half of the 18th century, the cloth manufacturers of Velké Meziříčí were marked by lack of capital, thus furthering the expansion of investment activities “nákladnictví”.  Apart from wealthy Jews mentioned in 1746 now it was also masters of cloth and fabrics who began to buy larger quantities of wool than they could handle themselves and then gave it to poor fellow craftsmen to process, those who otherwise would not be able to purchase it for themselves.  They then bought back ready-made draperies from them, paying only for their work.  Besides the expert knitter and merchant Václav Segenschmied, who needed fabric for army supply contracts and therefore supported two other masters  in Meziříčí, there were two other investors “nákladníci” long time guildmaster of the the drapers guild Francis Kallab and master draper Jiří Eichler.[8]

        Among the stocking makers was Václav Segenschmied.[9]  He was born on September 28th 1723 the last of five children of his father, Dominic Segenschmidt (1687-1752) and mother Marie.[10]  Most of his siblings, including two brothers, however, died in their youth.[11]  Václav thus became the heir to his father's stocking business.

            In 1740-1742, during the war between Maria Theresa and Prussia, Václav supplied the imperial army with knitted goods.  From the profits he bought a house on Town Hall Street in 1744.  On 25. 11. 1742, he married Anna Žamberská and in 1754 Václav Segenschmied owned two houses, one in the town, the second in the suburbs.  The following year, he was listed as the owner of three houses, because in January 1755, he had bought another house in Radnická Street, the commercial center of the city at that time.

            Following in the footsteps of his father, Václav apprenticed as a stocking maker, but did not practice the craft.  Sometime in 1760, if not earlier, he was asking for a permission to trade.  Because he intended to expand his business, he asked in 1760 to be able to add knitting, in which he was trained, to the trading.  The local trade representative reported that Václav Segenschmied trades in small goods, that he himself does not operate the knitting trade; but many times he funded poor masters with wool and money, and then bought their ready-made stockings and sold them at retail.  Because his knitting trade, the associated trade and the turnover is useful for the other masters too, they acknowledged that Segenschmied should operate his knitting business.  Although it was not usual for someone to run two trades simultaneously, Segenschmied received this permission.  Probably even before the official confirmation he engaged in nákladnictví - lending/investment activities.  He was very enterprising, "lending wool and money" not only to stocking makers but also to fabric and cloth makers, who worked for him.  He was possibly urged to business with concern for his numerous family.

            With his wife Anna Václav Segenschmid had 12 children: Josef (*23. 2. 1744), Václav (*9. 1. 1745), Ignác (*31. 7. 1746, +23. 6. 1747), Anna (*3. 5. 1748), Josef (*6. 2. 1750,+13. 9. 1750), twins Jan and Mariana (*16. 6. 1751, +22. 4. 1755 and 20. 10. 1754), Filip (*27. 3. 1753, +23. 6. 1753), Rosalie (*30. 7. 1754), František Josef (*19. 9. 1756, +27. 12. 1757), Jiří (*24. 4. 1758), Eva (*14. 12. 1759, *12. 2. 1762). Segenschmid’s wife Anna died on 8th of October 1782 at the age of 45. Very soon he got married again , because after 1764 he had had other nine children with Josefa, about who we have no more information. The marriage is not registered in the Meziříčí register so she probaly was not local. Václava Segenschmid and Josefa’s children: Kateřina (*24. 11. 1764), Josef Valentin (*13. 2. 1766, +19. 4. 1774), Jan Babtist (*22. 6. 1767), Dominik (*16. 4. 1769), Mariana (*8. 9. 1771) oo Bernard Krziwanek, Anna (*14. 7. 1773, +30. 4. 1774), Josefa Vincentia (*31. 3. 1775), Anna Magdalena (*27. 6. 1777), Josef Martin Jiří (*9. 11. 1779).[12]

            By 1760 Václav Segenschmied asked for permission to trade 200 centnýřs[13] of Hungarian wool. The request is dated 6.10.1760 and it is justified by the fact that he lends money and wool to cloth makers in Velké Meziříčí and Měřín in exchange for cloth, which he delivers to Vienna.  It is also accompanied by a certificate from Velké Meziříčí’s and Měřín’s fabric makers and drapers.  We do not know if he received his permission.  In 1762 Václav Seegenschmied asked Velké Meziříčí’s knitters and fabric makers for a new permission for 300 Hungarian centnýřs of wool. The request is dated 6.1.1762 and says that it is for the Viennese imperial military warehouse of cloth and stockings.  For the production of the required quantity he must supply 24 knitting masters with wool, that is why he needs 300 centnýřs.

            The report presented by the representative of trades, Tomáš Žamberský on 6.2.1762 confirms that Segenschmied supplies the warehouse in Vienna with cloth and stockings, which are then supplied to some regiments.  The already mentioned 24 masters, who Segenschmied supported, can process much more so the 300 centnýřs is no excessive amount.  Another view was that of Jihlava’s regional Subaltern Gottfried Schöpss.  He calculated that from 300 centnýřs of wool one can produce 30,000 pairs of military stockings. In Velké Mezirici the cost of a centnýř of wool is 34 gulden, so for pure wool Segenschmied will pay 10,200 gulden.  When you pay 5 krejcar to the knitter, for a pair, then 30,000 pairs cost 2500 in gold.  Altogether, 12,700 gulden, which Segenschmied quite definitely would not be able to pay for.  Therefore it was advised to give him permission for just 100 centnýřs so he could produce 10,000 pairs of stockings and almost five regiments can be served. The representatives of the Chamber recommended granting only 150 centnýřs, adding that Moravian wool is also suitable for stockings.  Again, we do not know how many centnýřs Segenschmied finally received a permission for.  That year Segenschmied bought 200 pieces of plain uniform cloth from Meziříčí’s fabric makers, 18 cubits long and 11/2 cubits wide.

            On 21. 12. 1764 Václav Segenschmied asked again for the permission, this time for 600 centnýřs of Hungarian wool.  Soon he should deliver different kinds of cloth, hats and stockings for four regiments. Local cloth and stocking makers produce such goods for him also in other places, but he needs to have at least 600 centnýřs.  Therefore he asked for a permission for the aforementioned 600 centnýřs.  We have no knowledge of the results of this application.

            In 1767 in Měřín cloth makers made 18 units of wide fabrics and 50 pieces of cloth lining for Václav Segenschmied from his own wool.  In that year Segenschmid achieved victory over his competitors - the Jewish traders, who had illegally rented shops around him in the Radnická Street. After several years of litigation they had to leave their stores.

            In subsequent years the promising business of Václav Segenschmied seems to be limited.  At least we have no further reports about him from concessions for commercial materials.   He led a lawsuit with the stocking makers’ Guild, with the city council, syndic Mr. Zálejský, with the directorat the castle, František Král, the Regional Governor Baron Balthazar Clement von Bossi.  Only shortly before his death did he win his lawsuits. Also, in 1766 his son Václav, born in 1745, won his authorization to trade.  He also had a large family.[14] Both are in the city registers (books) called "burgher", "businessman", "hosier." It could be assumed that they continued to operate a store at least, if not lending activities.  This assumption, however, has not been substantiated because no documents in City Hall from this period have survived.

            “The pharmacy was in the house number 20 on the city square, which on 31.12.1771 was purchased by a businessman Václav Segenschmied for 805 zl. 27 Cr.  When the pharmacist Pischl married his daughter, he left the house to them.  After the death of pharmacist Pischl, his son-in law Antonin Eberle took over the pharmacy in 1801, and in 1809 took over the house.  The pharmacist trade remained associated with the house.  In 1837 the pharmacist Eberle’s son Anton took over, who sold the house again in 1851."[15]

            In 1787 Václav Segenschmied bought the estate Věž with a castle near Německý Brod.[16]

            Václav Segenschmied probably died in the year 1789.[17] (The recording of the death of Václav Segenschmied is not listed in the state archives, although it was maintained up until 1830.)

            If we ignore the craftsmen who only worked for a limited number of clients, only three professions were working for wider markets - the weavers, stocking makers and fabric makers. The sales of their products were done by traders, especially by a master stocking tradesman Václav Segenschmied. But Václav Segenschmid, whose business already then had features of manufacturing, did not become a pioneer in factory production." [18]

 

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Joseph Krziwanek, son of Bernard and Marie Anna,  was born in about 1788, as he died in Věž on September 9, 1795 at the age of 7. The cause of death is stated as "died of stroke". Between 1786-7 one or two more children could have been born.[19]

 

In 1789 after the death of Václav Seegenschmied the estate estimated at 50 000 under inheritance settlement went to his daughter Maria Anna, who married Skřivánek.

 

On November 21, 1790, Thomas Leopold Krziwanek was born; his godfather was Joseph Maria Baron Langer von Langendorf, Lord of Česká Bělá, and Rosálie Reinchadtová, ginger bread maker from (Velké) Meziříčí.

 

In 1791 the estate of Květenov was sold for more than 23,275 florins; after that the estate consisted only of the Věž estate and Veselí.  The owners, or rather co-owners of this heritage were apparently Bernard and Marie Anna. Also in 1791 Bernard Krziwanek along with Věž’s citizens asked to move the parish from Skála to Věž.  Because of the resistance of Skála residents that has not been achieved. 

 

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P. Joseph Knight Lodgman von Auen (1742-1813)

 

Krziwanek’s godparent P. Joseph Knight Lodgman from Auen ( 1742-1813 ) belonged to the life at the Věž castle. And it is just the character of Joseph P. Lodgman of Auen and the events during his stay in Věž at the end of the 18th century that the whole chapter of the book Dějiny Úsobí[20] by author Jiří Bořecký deals with.  The memorial book of the parish in Skala[21] served as the main sources of this engaging and detailed text.  P. Joseph Knight Lodgman von Auen (1742-1813), a descendant of an old Irish aristocratic family is obviously the main character.  Until the order was abolished in 1773, he was a Jesuit priest; after that he decided not to become diocesan clergy, but chose the path of an independent priest.  Thanks to the family foundation, in 1778 he became an honorary canon of the Chapter in Hradec Králové[22].  Below J. Bořecký is quoted extensively.[23] 

             

P. Lodgman stayed in Věž from 1780 on.  He probably lived in the local castle.  The manor Věž  was owned by Knight Franz Anton Degen in the years 1774-1787, then by his successors  Václav Segenschmied who owned it in years 1787-1789, Bernard Křivánek who was the owner in the years 1789-1792 and Leopold Goško von Sachsenthal in the years 1792-1795.  Leopold Goško von Sachsenthal (1757-1831), a descendant of Jihlava patrician family enobled on March 8, 1642, owned the Věž estate only for a transitional period, since by 1796, it belonged to Bernard Krivanek once again. [24]  Gosko was the Jihlava postmaster in the years 1793-1801. He died in Jihlava on August 26, 1831.  His cousin Johann Jacob Goshko von Sachsenthal (1746-1820) belonged in 1794 together with Wenzel Adabert von Herites among “Domherren zu St. Veit ob dem Prager Schloss.”[25]

            P. Lodgman served the Holy Mass as an independent parish priest in the chapel for the nobility and the people from around Věž.

            Everything changed after the the local chaplain in Skála (1787-1800) Joseph P. Pankrác Jenč[26] was appointed.  It seemed to him that Věž’s public worship in the castle chapel disrupts the worship in his church in Skála.  In 1792, P. Jenč raised a complaint to Hradec Králové’s Episcopal ordinariate about the situation in Věž and his parish.  The letter stated that ex-jezuit P. Josef Lodgman Knight of Auen, living for many years in Věž, does not recognize his authority.  In Věž’s castle chapel he often serves private Holy Mass at exactly the time when the parish church services are held in Skála. Lodgman’s Masses were attended not only by Věž’s residents, but also by residents of other villages that belonged to the parishes Krasné Hory, Herálec and Skála.  People who gathered there, could not hear sermons from Skála, catechetical instruction and reporting of bishops and royal ordinances, because in Věž nothing like that happened at the end of the Holy Mass.  Many residents of Věž rarely attended Skala’s church, not even during Holy Easter and they did not go there for confessions either. At that time, when worship was taking place in Skála, people gathered in Věž, at a local Jew’s place, where they drank brandy and beer, which are cheaper there than in the surrounding areas.  People luxuriated in drinking there and often caused public nuisance and desecrated the Lord's Day excessively.  During the pilgrimage, which is in Věž celebrated for the Feast of Saint John of Nepomuk, P. Lodgman was invited to serve Mass in the chapel coupled with preaching, while P. Jenč was not been informed.  Permission from the Prague consistory, once granted for the afternoon litany and exposing the Blessed Sacrament is getting unbearably expanded.  Even Krásná Hora’s and Herálec’s parish priests are suffering from this.  Finally, P. Jenč pleaded with the consistory, to restore the current situation to the situation before the year 1774, when it was permitted to serve in the chapel, according to the standards of other castle chapels.  The Prague consistory at the request of knight Franz Degen issued on March 24, 1774 a permission for Věž’s castle chapel, where on Sundays and during holidays Mass could be celebrated and afterwards the priest could teach and interpret the gospel.

            The consistory, having considered the complaint, decided in a decree  on March 15, 1792, that the Holy Mass, with the exception of major holidays, can be celebrated in the chapel for the the comfort of the nobility, but every year they must ask for new permission.  The worship in the chapel however should not be attended by parishioners from Věž and surrounding villages.  Prior permission of the Prague consistory is considered superfluous invalidity because of the newly established Skala’s church parish.

This decision, however, did not help P. Jenč.  On the contrary, when in Věž P.Jenč read the decision from the Bishop and a copy was sent to Jihlava to the new owner of Věž’ estate Leopold Goshko von Sachsenthal (1757-1831), a new great controversy started.  Goshko by his own nature did not take this decision well and shortly thereafter came to Věž.  We learn about his visit from a letter from P. Jenč to Lipno’s vicar P. Matěj František Svára on March 29, 1792:  "On Monday at five o'clock in the afternoon I had visitors Mr. Gosko von Sachsenthal, otherwise a professional grain trader from Jihlava estate with his wife, and P. Lodgman with another stranger who was unknown to me."  After greetings they were seated, then Gosko asked Jenč who was the beast, which sent the indication about his chapel to the consistory: "I myself have done it, so this makes me a beast?", replied Jenč. Goshko then got very angry and severely threatened him.  When he got even more irritated, P. Jenč said: "Remember that you are not in your house, here I'm the host."  To that he responded: "With me, you have to talk differently (politely), I'm no Křivánek, no village reeve."  Since all four guests, especially the mistress, yelled, P. Jenč considered the most useful thing was to be silent. Gosko after a while calmed down and behaved more moderately. P.  Lodgman then said: "I will ask for satisfaction/compensation, I was dishonored; I was considered a castle chaplain."  To that P.Jenč countered by saying that he did not mention him in his letter to consistory.  Then both (Goshko and Lodgman) assured Jenč that they will appeal to the bishop. During new threats Goshko repeated many times that with money one can accomplish anything.

            Briefly it seemed that consistory decision in favor of Skála’s localist will apply permanently.  Soon thereafter, however, it happened as predicted, and Goshko with Lodgman really turned a request in writing to the bishop. Goshko begged him to keep worship in Věž as they were happening in the past.  Canon Lodgman asked the bishop to punish those who offended his reputation and for his former powers to be extended.  The letter was accompanied with a pamphlet which stated all the reasons for maintaining Věž’s worship and refused Jenč’s arguments.  The consistory decided to accommodate all.  The vicar communicated this decision to P. Jenč.  The castle chapel will not be closed or services reduced.  All else remains up to P. Lodgman, as long as he is the parish priest, to worship and serve in his chapel. The Bishop's decree of 15 March 1792 did not ever get changed only Skála’s priest misunderstood it.

            P. Jenč showed great dissatisfaction over this decision, and in his letter  dated 28 April 1792 he pours his heart out and gave free rein to his indignation: "If sir, the owner of Věž’s estate asks for worship, which was previously served in his chapel, he is asking it from profit so the Jew would not break his lease.  How did the reputation of Mr. canon (Lodgman) suffer? I did not even mention his name, and deliberately postponed all concerning the person, for another time.  And how does is it in accordances with what de Auen wrote to your dignity and said to me in presence of the manor farm estate owner; what was his plan?  This is impossible to even write about.  The honorbale P. Auen should be careful, when he thinks that he could triumph over me.  He has been hiding in Věž away from the royal gubernium, without their knowledge, almost 12 years deceiving the estates of the Bohemian Kingdom.  He appropriates spiritual service, which he is disturbing in my parish.  It is strange that in our Directory his name is omitted every year.  I did not declare Věž’s chapel closed, but word for word, I translated the decree into Czech and read it.  But what followed I don’t understand. Lodgman’s jurisdiction remained.  But when he is given the right to serve in the chapel in Věž as the parish priest and worship in the manner: then will there remain any of my authority in castle chapel of Věž?  Who will ordain in Věž, him or me?  If it will be me, will he be able to be called in this case a cooperator.  What hurt his reputation, even the consistory expressed it as, a castle chaplain.  Reproach and heinous threats are thrown at me from the owner of Věž, though I patiently wanted to swallow, are still hurting me.  I was hoping that I will be worthy of protection from the high office, but disappointed and everything that Mr. Gosk predicted followed, not a false oracle, but like according to a book."

            This letter impressed Lipnice vicar P. Matěj Františk Svára enough that he stood up for him with a local bishop.  After his testimonial the new bishop Hay decided with decree of May 31, 1792 to adjust Věž in favor of P. Jenč as follows.

            1 ) In Věž the Holy Mass will be served on Sundays and holidays from the feast of St. Gregory until the feast of St. Havel at 7 am, from the feast of St. Havel to Gregory at 8am so that in the parish of Skála and the surrounding churches people were not confused, and the parish people would not be lured away from worship, but rather could find comfort, so that part of Věž’s people could attend the morning's Holy Mass and the second part would be present at the High Mass at  Skála’s church.

            2) When a priest comes to Věž’s, whatever his name is (a hint to P. Lodgman), who on Sundays and holidays serves the Mass, he can after the Mass let people read the Gospel, briefly interpret or speak about the Christian truths.  Let him not forget to do that under any circumstances.

            3) A priest serving the Holy Mas in Věž should see to that the people did not go drinking during service in Skala, not to desecrate the day of the Lord. 

            4) The priest having jurisdiction over the hearing of confessions in Věž’s chapel, will greet the local chaplain ahead of time, never commits anything at the expense of parish’s morning worship as prescribed by parochial jurisdiction, not to lure people from their pastor, as bishop's office expects the same from the Honorable P. Josef LODGMAN beloved Knight von Auen, honorary canon of Hradec Kralove, now dwelling in Věž, and his noble conduct.  The Bishop does not allow the Věž’s chapel to storage the Blessed Sacrament.

            5) The service in Věž will begin at 6, that is before Skálas’ Mass and end earlier than Skála’s begins, as not to suffer any loss for Skála’s parish worship. In Skála the service begins at 8 and after it ends, at 10 o’clock the next worship in Věž will begin.  This will be done for the comfort of the locals and desire of Věž’s owner of the manor, parish law will be upheld, and for good order, without any cause for future complaints.

            "In this way ( wrote P. Jenč ) the argument that caused me  many troubles for a long time was terminated. "[27]  The manorial lords in Věž’s nobility and P. Lodgman were not easy for him…. '' Bernard Křivánek wanted to transfer the parish of Skála as early as 1791. At the beginning of 1796 for the third time he renewed his request for a transfer, which was definitively rejected due to the resistance of Skála’s localist P. Jenč by Hradec Králové consistory decree of June 6, 1796.[28]

 

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Chapel and a balcony facing the park in 2004

 

P. Lodgman dwelled at that time at the castle in Věž as a former Jesuit priest, living mainly from his annual income of 300 florins making him almost financially independent and the religious fund did not have to pay him.  He was not taking care about any parish, only served mass in the chapel of Věž’s castle, and on some days he was reading from the gospel there.  On August 15, 1793 Smrčná’s magistrate Jan Pavel Streichsbier with Matěj Michlfaith came to Věž asking whether he would take over their spiritual authority.  They promised to build a parish house and the free importation of all the firewood. Their offer pleased P. Lodgman very much, therefore, did not think about it at length and he agreed, because he was used to working in the vineyard of the Lord, and the idea to become an independent parish priest attracted him.

            After approval from the Gubernium and Hradec’s consistory, he started on November 1 at Smrčná.  At first, he lived in a peasant’s cottage. Only after a year he moved to a newly built church housing.[29]  Probably out of a pity he took to the parish an old, single, poor noblewoman Maria Barbara Vraždová von Kunvald (* 1727), who also in Smrčná’s parish died in March 3rd, 1799.  Out of gratitude she made ​​in her testament Lodgman her sole heir of her certainly not a huge fortune.  At that time she did not have any close relatives, since she outlived all of her siblings, who passed away without descendants . ... Marie Barbora perhaps for some time lived with (her brother – Editor’s note) Jan František in Německý Brod, where the brother died on Aug. 23, 1772.  After that she probably enjoyed the hospitality at Degen in Věž castle.  From there probably together with P. Lodgman she went to Smrčná.

            P. Lodgman took perfect care of Smrčná’s church, which was well equipped due to the diligence of local parishioners.  Shortly before his departure to Hradec Králové a new stone tower was built on the site of a dilapidated wooden tower of the church."[30]

 

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On March 3, 1795 Jan z Boha (Joanes de Deo) Josef Krziwanek was born in Věž.  The godparents were Josef Maria Baron Langer from Langendorf, Lord of (Česká) Bělá and Rosálie Reinhard, gingebread maker from (Velké) Meziříčí.  In the same year on September 9th the above mentioned Josef Krziwanek died at age  7. [31]

            About the family of barons from Langendorf : Severýn Remigius Langer (1681-1757) bought a farm in 1712 in Mlýnice at Červená Voda near Prostějov and became a Knight in 1729.  (His son, Ferdinand Otto sold the farm in 1739).  Severýn Remigius still owned Bělá and Petrkov and in 1754 and became a Baron.  Perhaps in the years 1737-1740 he probably was also the builder of so called Langer’s or Pachta’s Palace in Prague in Celetná Street no. 31. [32]  The godfather of Krziwek was Severýn’s son, Baron Josef Maria Langer von Langendorf ( * Mlýnice November 21, 1725; +October 15, 1798). [33]  He was the last lord of his family estate - the not too distant from Věž estate – Česká Bělá estate in Německý Brod region.  Joseph's daughter Rosalie (1770-1836) married the Count Jan Václav Špork. [34]

 

On 24. 1. 1799 in Jihlava, house no. 102 in the Špitálské suburbs the next owner of the Věž estate Eduard Krziwanek was born.[35]

 

4. 1. 1800 the Krziwaneks daughter Apolonia Genoveva was born in Věž, the godmother was Josepha Kratochvílová.[36]

 

Joseph Krziwanek was born in Věž on February 13, 1804; the godparents: Joseph Lodgman von Auen, honorary canon at St. Spirit in Hradec Kralove, at that time a local priest in Smrčná and Josepha, wife of Mr. Kratochvil, salt trader from Třebíč.

 

In “Schematism” for 1804 both Bernard and Marie Anna are listed as the owners of the Věž estate; in a registry entry at the time of baptisms of their children, they are given as the then “Bernard Lord of Věž”, or “the estate of Věž” and Marie Anna.

 

We also know that under the reign of Joseph II . (1780-1790) the school was located at the Castle. The last teacher was dismissed in year 1808.

 

Another interesting year is 1809, when Bernard is deprived of ownership and Anna Marie remains a sole-owner of Věž’s estate.[37]

 

June 17, 1816 "Lady Josefa Segenschmied, widow of late Mr. Waclaw Segenschmied, Mezříč burgher from Moravia and Wěž farm holder" dies at the age of 73 from Brustwassersucht and on the 19th she is buried in Skála (Sepelivit Admodum Revendus Deus Ignatius Ulrich Vicarius Eppistis ... et decanus Krasnohorensis.)[38] In the chronicle we read: "... In the sacristy was a tombstone with a German text. “In the tomb rests Věž’s former lady 'Johanna (SIC! – should say Josefa) Segenschmied' who died 16. 6. 1817(sic) at the age of 73 years.  During the repair of the church, a tombstone was brought out and outside the sacristy it was leaned against the wall ... ".

 

In 1827 the fund for two poor (Armen Institute) was founded in Věž.

 

The municipal granary was built in 1832. At that time there were 520 citizens of which 56 were Jews.

 

During Marie Anne Křivánek’s times "there was a classicist rebuilding of the main western facade, in 1835 the size of the chapel was reduced, as the choir section was abolished.” [39]  About the chapel we read in the local chronicle: "During Marie Krzivánek’s times a certain retired spiritualist used to read daily holy Mass in it, and people from all surroundings so loved the chapel that in huge numbers they took part in God’s services. The neighboring priests complained about this, and since then Holy Mass had to be celebrated there with the door closed/locked.  After the death of this priest it was ensured that every fourth Sunday and second feast day the Holy Mass was celebrated in the chapel by a priest from Skála for which he received from the landowner 21 zl.r.č .. "[40]

 

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Jan Ludwig Krziwanek (1795-1861) JD.

 

On 1795 March 3rd Jan Josef (baptized John of God  - Joanes de Deo) Krziwanek, was born in Věž; the godfathers were  Josef Maria Baron Langer from Langendorf, lord of (Česká) Bělá  and Reinhard and Rosálie, gingerbread maker from Velké Meziříčí[41]. Jan studied at the gymnasium in Jihlava in the years 1806 - 1810. His brother  Eduard studied there in 1810-1813[42].

            On 1825 July 1st Jan married  23 years old Barbora Hafenbrädl, from a glassmaking family. The witnesses were František Nádherný, C.K. Gubernatorial Council and the regional governor in Jihlava, Josef Sebastian Řehola, Jihlava, county commissioner. In the registery, Jan Křivánek is ​​listed as the son of Bernard Křivánek, owner of the farm Věž.  In 1826 Meziříčtí’s school children can rely on the Foundation of Dr. John Křivánek from 1826[43].

            In 1827 Jan founded the glassworks in Janštejn as a "skillful lawyer from Jihlava."  The circumstances are described in detail in the article A. Kopp suggested that he was really capable, and here we learn more about his wife's family. (See the article further below). In 1829 Jan sells Janštejn’s glassworks to his son in law Johan Ignatius Hafenbrädl of Zďár nad Sázavou.

            A dispute over the glassworks (in Květná near Uherský Brod) ran until 1834, when the municipality issued a judgment unfavorable for Reich. Reich, however, appealed, and the dispute dragged on.  Meanwhile, in the first half of the 30s), a Viennese doctor of law Jan Ludvik Křivánek was enlisted as he was interested in the glassworks. He was also a glass entrepreneur.  In 1827 he founded the glassworks in Janštejn, which exist to the present day in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands. There he held a patent on the production of mirrors on a clay surface.  He wanted to run the smelter factory for 20 years and intended to rebuild it.  The manorial lords denied his request filed February 6, 1835  for the reason of the considerable costs of rebuilding.  On May 3, 1836 another auction for the lease of glassworks was announced, however, because it was fruitless, next one was supposed to be held on May 27, 1836.  Isaac Reich applied again.[44] .          

            In the yearbook Polytechnic Institute in Vienna for 1837 under the number 2117, it was stated that "Johann Ludwig Krziwanek Doktor der Rechte in Vienna Jägerzeile Nro 57 auf die Verbesserung Glasspiegel auf einer Thonplatte zu giefsen Auf ein Jahr vom 29 September. (annual patent for the production of mirrors on an earthen pad).[45]

            In „1840 Verhandlungen der kk Landwirthfchafts in Wien und Auffäße vermifchten ökonomifchen Inhaltes“ we find on page 120 „Güterbesitzer Johann Ludwig Krziwanek Doctor Mitglied der Rechte und der juridischen Faculty in Vienna.“

 

About how Dr. Jan L. Křivánek founded the glassworks in Janštejn in 1827

The article " The origins of the glassworks of Janštejn in the Jihlava, or is the glassworks Janštejn 200 years old?" was published in 2010 in Vlativědný Věstník Moravský.[46]  It was written by a descendant of local glassmakers Antonín Kopp, who, in 22 pages very thoroughly described how a skillful lawyer from Jihlava JD Jan Křivánek founded the glassworks.  Dr. Křivánek’s idea of ​​running the glassworks is related to the origin of his bride's, whose maiden name was Hafenbrädl.  She was daughter of a prosperous glassmister in Herálec, Franz Ignaz Hafenbrädl (1753-1828), whose portrait in an oil painting can be found in above mentioned article.[47]

            Franz’s uncle Johann G. Hafenbrädl was ennobled in 1783, and his nephew filed an application for the same in 1805.  For this reason he bought the estate Český Rudolec and there he wanted to set up a glass factory.  But the request was rejected and the estates even with its large debts sold.  Franz settled in Žďár, where he bought part of a Cistercian monastery, which had been devestated.  He then repaired it at great expense.  In this former seat of prelature he then led a more noble life and led the business side of his glass works from there.

         The production, which was extended from Herálec to neighboring Vojnuv Městec prospered.  Hafenbrädls overcame even the state bankruptcy in 1811.  Over time, however there were problems with the supply of wood and the production was endangered.  But then Franz’s son-in-law, JD Jan Ludwig Křivánek (1795 -1861)[48], doctor of laws from Jihlava, who was married to Franz first born daughter from his second marriage came to assistance.

            Dr. Křivánek knew from his experience the circumstances at Teleč’s estate, where they faced problems with insufficient sales of overaging wood in the forests.  And so he decided to take advantage of this situation.  He proposed therefore, that on behalf of his father-in-law, Herálec’s glassmater Hafenbrädl, discreetly and under his own name, he would found a new glass plant on Teleč’s estate, which could then, and ever since 1827 serve as a replacement for Herálec.[49]

         Dr. Křivánek first looked for suitable land in Horní Dubénky. On March 1, 1827 he entered into a purchase agreement.  Then on April 2 1827 he entered into negotiations with Count Leopold Podstatský-Liechtenstein, the lord of Telč.  The manorial lords contracted to supply wood for Křivánek, and Křivánek pledged among others to buy schnapps and beer exclusively from their manorial brewery.  The Count did not provide the land; under the agreement Křivánek had to look for that by himself.  Also the glassworks had to belong to Křivánek and would not just be rented.  That way Křivánek allowed an obligation to be given which he had already fulfilled.  “Later (in July) he received permission from the Governor's Office to build a glass factory, although it used to be customary, and the authorities strictly demanded that the one who ran the glass factory, had to not only be a trained glassmaker, but also had to be certified in this craft.  Something like that could not be said about Dr. Křiwánek, because apart from his wife, who was a daughter of a glassmaster, he had nothing to do with the glass industry and did not understand it.  Nevertheless, he got the permission.[50]  Moreover, it seems that the construction was started immediately after the approval of the Count in April and they did not wait for permission from the Governor's Office from July.

 

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The signature on the rental contract from 1 April 1828 , " J. L. Krziwanek Doctor of Laws, also a provincial lawyer and a land lord "

 

At the time of the death of Franz Ignaz Hafebrädl (1753-1828)  the glassworks in Janštejn were in full operation, and according to IOUs Dr. Křiwánek  by overpaying in deposit payments, probably deliberately and purposefully increased the debt of the glassworks.  Křivánek probably did not want to have all his property invested in the glass factory which was eventually intended to be sold to Hafebrädl’s estate and moreover then did not have to be sold too expensively.

         After a year and a quarter of operations on 31st January.1829 JD Jan Křiwánek sold the glassworks to his brother in law, the glassmaster Johann Ignaz Hafenbräl of Žďár nad Sázavou for 7,600 zl. conv. currency and 25 ducats in gold.  In the contract of sale a careful notice of the seller that he, that is Dr. Křiwánek now or in the future is not a guarantor of any debt, can not be overlooked.

            In addition, though without any necessary connection, it might be noted that the household Hafenbrädl was regularly visited, allegedly with her illegitimate children by the lover of Chancellor Metternich, Elisabeth Hafenbrädl.  This niece  of Franz’ lived originally as a ward of his family, later in Viennese high circles and to the chancellor she gave birth to a range of children, eg. the future Austrian ambassador Count von Hübner.[51]

 

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Edward Ernest Edler von Krziwanek (1799-1876), lord of Věž, the imperial and provincial deputy

 

Euard Ernest was born on January 24, 1799 in Jihlava in the house no. 102 in Špitál’s suburbs.  However, it was only the contents of his grant of arms that led us to this place of his birth.  Why he was born in Jihlava remains a question.  He was baptized at the same place with the name of Edward Ernest. Both names can be found later in the registers where he was naming his sons.

 

Both brothers Jan (*1795) and Edward Krziwanek (*1799) studied at the gymnasium in Jihlava.  Jan in the years 1806 - 1810. Eduard 1810-1813[52].  But we do not hear about him again until 1831.  At that time he is marrying the five year younger Baronin Caroline von Herites (1804-1876) at the church of St. Wenceslas in the castle of Nový Stránov.  The registry has ​​listed the bride as: "Noble Miss Maiden Baroness Caroline of Herites" and the groom as: "Gentle Lord Edward Ernest Kržiwanek Lord of the farmhouse Wiesch, son of the late Bernard Lord Wawřinec Kržiwánek, holder of farm Wiesch”.  Her family is thoroughly presented in the chapter about the "Familie von Herites". The wedding venue, thus the church itself, we can now see again renovated.  The wedding of Stránov’s Baroness was certainly “the” event and a number of eminent guests attended.  Among the wedding witnesses can be found the regional governor and also the owner of the neighboring estates of Skalsko or Kosmanos.

        Among the wedding guests, let us notice the witness Gothard Count von Mirbach (1808-1870).  Leaving aside the fact that he was the ancestor of the wife of the son of the last Austro-Hungarian emperor, Archduke Otto von Habsburg-Lothringen (*1912), which he could not have known himself at that time, it can be stated that Count Mirbach, as the owner of a nearby estate Kosmanos certainly embellished the whole event with his presence.  The wife of Count Mirbach was Matilda born Pachtová who dies soon after, whereupon Mirbach is marries her sister Aloisie.  (About the relationship with the family of Mirbach we can add that the announcement of the death of Edward Krziwanek will be sent to the address of Countess Natalie Wratislav, née von Mirbach[53].  Thanks to the obituaries we know, that Natalia Wratislav née von Mirbach, was the daughter of the wedding witness, Count Gotthard von Mirbach from Kosmanos, born at that location.[54]

 

 

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Gotthard Friedrich Graf von Mirbach (1806-1870), Zeichnung 1837 Josef Zumsande[55]

 

 

Surely other representatives of the family of the count Pachta of Rájov (von Pachta Rayhofen) were not missing.  Relationships with family Pachta were in fact alive almost certainly because their ancestral estate was not only Jablonné v Podještědí (Gabel in German), but also Bezno, which bordered directly with Stránov’s land – the distance between the castles is 5 km. According to featured places of birth, marriage and records in the local Chronicle the Pachtas certainly lived there during the first three decades of the 19th century.  Perhaps the most significant role in our story will be played by the oldest sister of the wives of Count Mirbach, Johanna née Countess von Pachta Rayhofen (1806-1878) with whom Caroline was obviously very close. Caroline Krziwanek nee von Herites called her "Freundin Jenny.”  When Jenny, who since 1835 had been Baronin Johanna von Kutschera, gave birth in Vienna in 1836 to a boy, he was baptized (in the name of Karel) in a baptismal dress, which Caroline bought for her own children.  We will return later to Jenny von Kutschera, née Countess Pachta and her family, mainly because her friendship with Caroline did not seem to leave her son, Baron Karl von Kutschera with much room for a choice of his bride.  He married Caroline's daughter Ernestine von Krziwanek and the girlfriends became relatives.  Caroline then titled Johanna "Grossmama Jenny."

 

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Johanna ‘Jenny‘ Freiin von Kutschera, née Gfin. Pachta (1806-1878)[56]

 

 

It is perhaps appropriate to add that the Pachta family had apparently already had the greatest period of ancestral glory behind them.  The great-grandfather of Jenny, Count Francis (+1799) was during the reign of Maria Theresa, as the governor, financially and politically the most powerful man in Bohemia.  He aggrandized Bezno at great expense to make the farm not only an economic base, but a representation of his status.  Bezen’s castle at that time was a place of frequent visits of influential people and was undoubtedly the center of the provincial political life.[57]

            Later on we read unflattering words about the father of Jenny, Count Franz Joseph (* 1776) in Bezno’s Chronicle: “From 1810 until 1820, Count Franz Pachta remained in Bezno.  "As was a bad landlord, he was given Count Salm, and later Baron Kapoun as an administrator.  Count Pachta was a simple man, one day he came to our Sedlacek, saying: Listen you old man! Sew for me gray dress suit.  Go to Boleslav, select the cloth, and on the first I will pay you for it. "Sedlacek went for advice to director Rotky. Director: "If you want to pay for the cloth yourself, God help you, but I can’t not give you a penny, I have to pay the butcher and baker.  Sedlacek later made an excuse to the Count that in Boleslav they did not want to give him cloth on credit.  He already owed Sedlacek 27 golds, and when on the first of the months he went to the castle to ask for it, the count sneaked out through the back door of the castle and when they met and he was reminded, he gave him only 1 or 2 golds as "discretion" and "that more has to come on first (of the month)! "This Count wore a winter coat with fox skins.  In the summer Sedlacek removed the foxes from the coat, and the Count had a summer coat!“[58]. For balance, let's add that in 1817 the castle in Bezno, built in 1750, was reduced to ashes, but within a year it was built again into the present magnificent form.[59]  However Bezno was eventually purchased by 1881, by the administration of the private estates of his  Majesty (The Emperor) for one million gulden.[60]

 

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Castle Bezno in the year 1818[61]

 

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Taufzeug and the Blue Memory Book

Returning now to the christening gown “Taufzeug”, which Caroline apparently bought for the baptism of her eldest son, Ernest Benjamin Thadeas (1832-1840) in 1832.  Then, as with all her children, the godparents were grandmother Maria Anna Krziwanek (in the register she is given as the owner of the Věž estate) and uncle Thade Baron von Herites.  The outfit was used by Caroline alone nine times, but because "Taufzeug" later became a traveling (outfit) - everyone baptized in it was recorded.  Thus not only was this heirloom, as well as an interesting family tradition, preserved. It also provides an original picture of family togetherness . depicted in what resembles detailed branches of an extensive family tree.  There are, in fact, with different handwritings gradually entered 11 children of Caroline’s sister Maria Baronin Voith von Sterbez,  9 grandchildren - the children of the three daughters of Caroline, and so on through six generations.  The writers have changed, but the immaculate gown was worn over and over until the 30s of the 20th century.  The last entry says that "the gown was lost at the death of Antonin Kratochvil (1861-1945), who had it with him, and apparently was stolen by somebody.”  The entire list was not just a loose leaf, but a page in a book that Caroline began to write.

 

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Sample entry in the Blue Memory Book. The page about parents.

 

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The Blue Memory Book – the blue printed cover, Caroline’s notebook, 38 pages, cca 20x15 cm

 

 

These were 38 pages bound with a printed envelope about 20x15cm.  She did not put there any heading, but because it is almost a contemporary genre with the ladies of her position and times, and the cover ws blue, let's call it the Blue Memory Book.

 

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The interior of the chapel of St. John of Nepomuk in Castle of Věž

 

Like other ladies of her background, Caroline noted births, baptisms, godparents, weddings, witnesses, deaths, funerals, ennoblements and honours. The entries did not lack places, dates and times, for births she gave the stage of the month and the corresponding signs of the zodiac.  For example: „Den 26ten August 1832 um 10 uhr Abends gebohren und den 28ten getauft Mein Sohn Ernest, Thadeus, Benjamin.  an eine Sontag beim Neu-Mond, an den Planeten der Jungfrau. Pathen Bruder Thadee und Schwiegermutter.“  The handwriting gradually changed, as the book wandered through the generations.  As late as 2005 - completely filled – it was lent to the author by a bloodline successor.

 

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Schlofs /castle Wěž, J Sandtner j.l. (Fránas archive)

 

After Thaddeus Ernest Benjamin (1832) Caroline gave birth to Maria Anna Barbara (1834), then came Mathilde (1835) and Friedrich Ferdinand (1836).  At that time the estate already formally belonged to Eduard Křivánek, because, according to state records of 30/07/1836, he bought if from his mother Anna Marie, born Seegenschmied, as a townsman of Kutná Hora.[62]  Mathilda’s godmother was Baronin Marie von Herites with Thadeas Baron von Herites.  Friedrich Ferdinand’s godparents then were Aunt Marie and her fiancé Ferdinand Baron Voith von Sterbez who were later married in the chapel in Věž in 1837.  But then comes a difficult period.  Nearly two years old Mathilde dies when Caroline is in her sixth month of pregnancy.  Three months later, little Caroline was born, but died after six days.

 

The following year 1838 nearly two year old Friederich died. In 1839 Hermine is born, but in 1840, when in July the village suffered from severe hail and all the grain was beaten into the ground, her firstborn, eight year old Ernest died in Prague in November.  Caroline is pregnant at the moment and has less than a month before giving birth, and that is why it seems obvious why the little girl, born in December of that year, receives the name of Ernestine.

 

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Maria (9), Hermine (6) and Ernestine (5) Krziwanek in front of greenhouse in the park  04/16/1845 signed Josef Just [63]

 

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Maria (9), Hermine (6) and Ernestine (5) Krziwanek in front of greenhouse in the park (cut out) 04/16/1845 signed Josef Just [64]

 

In 1841 Caroline's father, Johann Baron von Herites dies in Německý Brod and in 1842 her mother in-law Anna Marie Krziwanek also.  In the same year a great drought came.  Grain without moisture did not "make ears”.  The harvest collected was not even as much as what was sown.  Among the people poverty and hunger started.  In 1843 Caroline’s mother Barbara Baroness von Herites died in Německý Brod. 

 

In 1843, Professor Balling writes about the contributions of the Association to encourage an entrepreneurial spirit in Bohemia (Aufsätze uiber Dampfbierbrauerei, in Mittheilungen des Vereines zur Ermunterung des Bewerbsgeistes in Böhmen).  He reports that a few years prior they had tested brewing in Věž’s steam boilers.  However, this technology of boiling wort and hops to achieve the desired quality of beer was not successful. [65]

 

In 1844 the last child Eduard Carl was born.  He remained the only male descendant.  He was left only with three sisters: Mary, Hermine and the Ernestina.

 

During the time of “corvée” in 1844, they built a two-story so called Krzivanek’s "New House" between the brewery and manor smith shop (No. 62).  It was situated opposite the castle through the park.  In the years 1846 to 1847 the house was bought cheaply by merchant Meisel, who served in the village as the Jewish rabbi (descendants of the buyer Meisel still live in the Slovak Republic).  Krziváneks had the 1st floor available for free use.  A considerable portion of the outstanding balance of the purchase price was invoiced by businessman Mr. Meisel to the last of Krzivaneks for meals - and the debt was cleared.

 

                                                                        

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New House in Věž number 62 At Meisl‘s in year. 1930.[66]

 

 

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Havlíček’s theater company

Eduard Křivánek became a character in the novel Havlíčkův Máj by Josef Jahoda (1872-1946).  The book was written in 1936, but it is inhabited by people the author met in his youth in Německý Brod in the 1870s and 80s, or at least he had learned about them from living verbal tradition.[67]  The story is set in the period after the comeback of K. H. Borovský to Německý Brod from Russia in July of 1844 when Havlíček organized the Czech theatre for the enlightenment of a Germanised bourgeoisie.  We meet Edward Skrivanek in the book several times.  Karel Havlíček and his company presented plays not only at the theater in Pekhaus – the restaurant Na Holubníku, or in the large school hall, but played also at the estate of Věž.  Known in the future as a champion of the Czech language, still here at this time, he participated in German theatre.  The estate in Věž is mentioned by Václav Klofáč[68] as a place where "till the year 1848 K. Havlíček Borovský participated in German theatre" Also in The History of Czech Theater we can read that Havlíček was already presenting plays in Věž in the thirties:  "The then Německý Brod’s upper class was Germanized, but thanks to young Havlíček the national Czech consciousness had just begun to penetrate into higher social circles.  The theater had been active here during the past decade, but mostly in private.  It was Havlíček who laid the correct foundations here ... The first theatre performance took place in the old school in a small building behind the rectory of the Church, but the theatre was also active in Věž and Havlíček was present there as well.  It did not matter that the plays were in German, he took part in them and used the contacts to lobby for organizing Czech performances, in which he also succeeded."[69]

            From Jahoda’s novel we are selecting places that directly mention Věž’s Skrivanek. Havlíček said in strict manner: "... Here in Brod we will start.  Brod is spellbound.  Cursed by such as Doubravová,[70] such Skrziváneks and Müllers, Brod was cursed by the stupidity of the local people!" (p. 30) ... "And above the stage we will display the Czech lion!”  Havlíček decided. "Nothing other than the Czech lion.  We will not put there the black and yellow two-headed creature[71], " he is smiling at Žák.[72]

            "Věž’s Skřivanek, Kundrát from Květinov and mayor Vjeznický will have heart attacks, "says Žák. (p. 44)

            “... Oh, dear aunt Halamasková![73]  Straw is still sticking out from this family’s shoes; the aunt does not even knows how to bow properly, but pushes her way in to get among Brod’s dignitaries.  And how humble is her behaviour, when Věž’s Skrivanek graciously talks to her "(p. 51) ... Havlíček is counting the actors and recalls, "We must not forget the director from Věž, Dokoupil. Yesterday he offered to participagte.  That will catch Květinov, Věž and all the rural nobility."(p. 91) ..."You must understand this Lori (Jenčová)," says Havlíček.”  She is an ageing madam, and would like to marry in high circles.  She wants to become rich and is peeking into the Špital’s farm, to Věž to grab some Germanized “Milord”."(p. 109) ... Havlíček warns:" The most interesting thing is that there is a huge rush for the entrance tickets.  The tickets are wanted by people from Věž, from Sv. Kříž, Humpolec and almost all the neighboring villages.  Pekhaus would not be big enough! "(p. 159) ... Žák was willingly sharing:"  There will also be Skřivánek from Věž, Müllers from Špitál’s court, all surrounding top officials will come.  And professors[74] come – all of them ...."(p. 160) ... (after Havlíček’s short uncensored introductory speech about the importance of emancipation of the Czech language – editor’s note.) Also Věž’s Skrzivánek applauded Havlíček - perhaps his heart wanted otherwise, but one never knows... (p. 166) ... on pages 186-187 the author mentions a "šlitáž" of the patriotic theater members - a sleigh ride for which two sleighs were loaned by Věž’s director Dokoupil.[75]

            We do not know how much interest Eduard Skrivanek had in the theater itself.  Certainly we know that his wife Caroline, a “heated patriot" of voluntary and amateur theater , had already appeared in Klicpera’s play "Good morning" in Spálené Poříčí in 1820, at a celebration after a meeting of the patriotic literary society.

 

We read further in the book by F. Drašner that Havlíček was often a frequent visitor at Věž.  He quotes Gabler, who remembers how Havlíček was at a masquerade party dressed as a Cherokee, or how, although uninvited, poked fun from other guests. František Drašner writes:

            "Also the estate owner in Věž Krivánek organized balls and masquerades to which the notables came down from Brod, Humpolec and its surroundings.  Věž’s manager Dokupil was a member of Havlíček’s amateur theatre club and he  played the role of Skočnožka in the "Epigram".  Through  Dokupil Havlíček’s influence was transmitted from Brod to Humpolec.  And since Havlíček was well-known in Humpolec, they voted him deputy to the Reichstag in 1848.

            Havlíček was a frequent guest in Věž.  This is also proved by another of Gabler’s remark which depicts a family celebration on the estate, during which a home theater, an allegorical tableau and masquerade were organized. Gabler was at the feast with Vaclav Žák and Havlicek in a fancy disguise. Another visit in Věž is described by Emanuel Weidenhoffer when at a masquerade Fany acted as a Spaniard and Havlicek as a Cherokee.[76]

            Seven poems[77] by Emanuel Weidenhoffer[78] about the relationship of Havlíček to his (Weidenhoffer’s) sister has an aggregate name "E l e g i e, an old lame poem about a love affair of my sister Fanny and Karel H. B."  The cycle dated 23. 2. 1848 had been written for his sister Fanny, as can be deduced from its contents.[79]  The sixth poem Masquerade in Věž (small farm nearer N. Brod, owner of Skrivanek - ed. P. W.) depicts a carnival ball on the farm Věž, which Havlíček and Miss. W. attended.  The bitterness towards K Havlíček spurts out in the last two stanzas of the poem:

 

Carnival sumptuous feast

generous gentleman of Věž is celebrating again;

for surrounding rare clans

Castle Hall particularly prepared is.

 

Already at pleasing sound of tones

Different masks stroll around,

Behold! There herself the daughter of the regiment

in modest attire comes in.

 

Ha! What's there for compatriots

They joined the company right now?

Everything remains to look at him!

Cherokee brings a Spanish lady.

 

Limbs constrained by corset

lined with gold,

skirt decorated with a silver cross,

plentiful precious laces.

 

And in the rich hairdo

silver needle flutters,

She flies dance with

her northern friend.

 

Hotter than the sun,

glowing over the Spaniards,

love formed the thrones,

which they both worshiped.

 

Love burning so cleanly,

he himself a traitor always extinguished

and the burnt place

by far he avoided.

 

The burnt place torments

Girlfriend’s disappointed heart,

she sheds bitter tears

having no more than sad forget-me-nots. [80]

 

In Věž the amateur theatre company from Brod gave a German performance, in which Karel Havlíček played alongside “a young Countess Stubnikova, apparently a guest at the estate Věž”.[81]

            And who was the Countess Stubnikova?  In the years 1844-1846, when Havlíček apparently arrived to give the performance in Věž, there were only two Countesses Stubick von Koenigstein.  These sisters Anna (1821-1875) and Wilhelmina (1819-1887) were cousins of Úsobí’s Count Eduard Fučikovský von Grünhof (1814-1891), whom we know, for example, as a companion of Edward Krziwanka or Frantisek Havlicek in the oil mill company in Květinov.  Both families - Fučíkovský von Grünhof and Štubík von Königštejn  - are described in detail by Jiří Bořecký in his History of Úsobí and Chyšky.[82]  We read here that Anna and Vilemína were the daughters of an impecunious captain of 8th Infantry of the Imperial Regiment, Count Johann Nepomuk Štubík von Koenigstein (1782-1840).  Their mother, Leopoldina Countess Stubick von Koenigstein née Fučikovská von Grünhof (1791-1875), however, received as an inheritance from Úsobí’s  estate lifetime annuity.  In 1849 Wilhelmina married Dr. Med. Franz Xaver Güntner (1812-1887), and later professor of medicine at the University of Prague.[83]  In their places of residence reported in the New and Old Town Prague is no mention of children.[84]  Sister Anna remained single and according to the family chronicle of Fučíkovský von Grünhof she also loved a doctor from a burgher family.  But Leopoldine allegedly objected to Anna’s marrying him.  At the time her niece Marie Fučikovská (1814-1897), stayed with Vilemina to learn the city's manners, then Anna, out of despair, jumped into the river Vltava and drowned.[85]

 

In a magazine article Vilém Gabler recalls Havlicek in Německý Brod, where he lived with him in the 1840s , literally as follows:  “Havlíček then was very inclined to perform some wicked pranks.  On the neighboring estate a family celebration was scheduled to be held: home theater, an allegorical image and masquerade.  In allegorical image Havlíček took over the role of genius, for which he was not exactly competent, but for him it was just fun.  He made Žák and me to go with him to the masquerade ball (although we were not invited), it goes without saying though in some disguise.  And Havlíček brought there a hussar and a Turk, who he did not introduce to anyone and that no one knew, and it was a particular pleasure for him when he could whisper to us: “They keep asking who the hussar is and who the Turk is!””[86]

 

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Eduard Ernest Edler von Krziwanek ( 1799-1876) on the balcony of Věž’s castle - a greenhouse in the background[87]

 

E. Křivánek, landowner and city councilman, with 10 gulden" and "JUDr. Eduard Brzorád, adv., 3 gulden” are listed "as contributors from Německý Brod" in the "List of contributions to the establishment of the Czech National Theatre" from the years between 1851-1861."[88]

 

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Slavomil’s article on Věž’s industrial school in 1845

 

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Castle Věž at the beginning of the 20th century.

 

In the memorial book of Věž’s school the head teacher Kořínek mentions an interesting article about the technical school in Věž, which he saw in the magazine "Květy" from 1845[89].  There it is literally written:

            "Many will wonder that in that village a technical school like this could ever exist.  And yet it does.  Slavomil[90] traveling for his affairs through Humpolec stopped in the village of Věž.  It was Sunday.  He saw a lot of young men and women walking toward the castle, and asked what it meant.  He was happy to hear that there was Sunday Industrial School.

            At that time, according to the description, Věž was an ordinary village in character, with a very beautiful, manor castle.  So he rushed there and saw how a gentleman was teaching simple traditional craftsmen the sciences of geometric principles and also practices such as drawing.  The director and teacher of the school was a clerk (actuarius in Latin) and an ardent patriot EF Schwarz of Věž.  He graduated from a technical institute in Prague and returned to his county; he knew how little practical knowledge existed in the country, although Věž’s craftsmen annually earned their bread by building and craftsmanship.  It moved him to share - according to his capabilities and forces – what could be of some use in their craft.

 

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Věž’s greenhouse with castle in the background

 

            In mid January of 1845 he begins to turn the idea into a reality.  Since he was teaching the subjects falling within the architectural field, it was really a special industrial school for builders and bricklayers.  Exercises in drawing were an important subject of study.  There were regularly 8-12 persons, mostly neighbors of Věž.  The results of the schooling were not preserved in any records or catalogs, but in the same year B. Slavomil writes that many of the students and perhaps everyone of them spoke so wisely, they could embarrass those uneducated city artisans, though German speaking. … So in this unknown corner, without all the noise, soon was realized an important educational venue and it alone – only for the love of homeland.

 

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Věž’s castle from the front in 2004

 

            In this activity Schwarz, who was heavily supported by a teaching assistant from nearby Skála - Dvořák.  He as an ardent patriot promoted literature by buying books, and also lectured to children about poisons and antidotes so clearly, and with such success that Slavomil, unwittingly shed tears, when hearing their answers.[91]"

 

 

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Věž castle – look from the back in 2004

 

Let us give a few lines to describe the estate, as it was presented by Sommer’s (book) Czech Kingdom.[92]  In the 30s of the 19th century Věž’s estate included over 870 hectares of fields, meadows, woods, ponds, pastures and gardens.  After the sale of the village of Květenov ( in 1791) the estate consisted of the community of Wěž (also Wiež, Wiesch ) attached to a parish Skála; with a seigniorial castle and a public Chapel of St. John Nepomuk, where every 4th Sunday Mass took place.  Also, there were offices of a property manager; a farm with pens for sheep, a brewery for 4 barrels (4 x 23.4 liters), 2 alcohol distilleries, a tavern, a mill with a saw mill; also another mill called Saliterna.  The dominion also consisted of the Moserov village and farmstead Veselsko with sheep pens, a distillery and a gamekeepers lodge.  The last village is Lhota (also Lhotka) on Skalský brook, also with a distillery.  The mill pond in Věž has carp and pike in it.  The estate includes 993 inhabitants of which 10 are Jewish families. The language spoken is Czech.

 

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Postcard with greetings from Věž, Foto Dvořák and ?, Německý Brod

 

The main source of income and food is agriculture.  The soil is mostly sand, mixed with clay of only slight fertility, especially suitable for corn and oats and also, barley, peas, potatoes and flax.  Fruit trees are just in gardens. There are 12 horses (4 assigned only for manors), 337 head of cattle, 730 sheep, 100 pigs, goats 6.  Both estates of Věž and Veselsko have sheep pens.  Forests cover 52 hectares and are mostly coniferous and some broadleaved trees.  Wood is harvested just a little and part of it is sold to Německý Brod.

 

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Greenhouse in Věž

 

Věž is an estate farm recorded in the land register (Zemské Desky) managed by the administrator who is housed within the Věž estate and acts as director. Artisans are counted as: 1 barrel maker, a baker, 2 beer drawers, a brewer, 4 distillery operators, a butcher, shopkeeper, liqueur maker (Moyzes Pick) with a single production authorization, 2 millers, 2 blacksmiths, 2 tailors, 2 shoemakers, a stonemason, wheelwright, weaver and a midwife (for 523 women).

            For completeness we should add that an estimate of the value of the property from 1841 amounted to 136,990 gold coins.  According to the Orth’s dictionary besides the brewery and liquer distillery there had been a flour mill for bone meal.  During Eduard Krziwanek’s times, according to the chronicles of the manor, three distilleries were established there.  In 1838 a property inventory of land was also conducted for the purpose of taxation.  The list of properties in Věž and its surroundings is a very monotonous reading, because most of the fields belonged to Edward Křivánek.

            But it is interesting that Křivánek’s ​​name can also be found on maps and lists of properties in Německý Brod.  Besides owning extensive lands there, he also owned the house no. 23, which was the inn “At the Sun,” which was also a an outlet for beer and spirits made in Věž.  This travelers’ inn, which was mentioned by Josef Jahoda in his novel "At the Sun" stood in the Lower square on Jihlava street.  Today a building technical school is in its place. 

 

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Inn “At the Sun” in Německý Brod[93]

 

The novel by František Hamza "Šimon Kouzelník” (Simon the Magician), which besides being a story of the fictional enlightened patriotic Norbertine priest, is also a kind of chronicle of life in Německý Brod, in the first half of the 19th century, with a mention of the Brod’s inn "At The Sun”.  It is where on Saturdays the innkeeper prepares for students blood sausage feasts.  There is a scene in which P. Simon is coming here among cheering students and explains: "I ​​allowed the children one, two sausages, a pint of beer and a decent song on a fiddle.“  The scene in the novel is set around the year 1822 when the inn already belongs to Skrziwanek or could have - we know that it belonged to them in the 30s.[94]

 

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Inn at Sun in Německý Brod, drawing by Jan Jůzl[95]

 

Before proceeding to the events of 1848, let’s complete the picture from the times of serfdom as it is described in the municipal chronicle: " Even Serfs from Lhota used to come to Věž to perform corvée.  The old-timers remember these unfortunate times as the manor “dráb” (A uniformed servant/employee of the manor, performing official orders, usually a veteran soldier ) waited for them by the cross statue, and when some did not come in time, he laid the first farmer on the field balk by the cross and mercilessly beat him up for not going faster, and keeping the others late.  The nobility in Věž had its own court and those who opposed were “swept away”.

                                                                                                                 

AE Komers writes that already in the 30s individual industrious landlords, namely the outstanding farmer Křivánek (in Věž) and following his example the best farmers of Čáslav region found out that the fertilization with bones pays very well. ... "[96]

 

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Events of 1848

The revolutionary events of the year 1848 and the authorization of a constitutional government had its responses even in Německý Brod, Humpolec and its surroundings.  Eduard Kržiwanek was one of the main characters of these events in this region.  Responses to these events are not only recorded in the private correspondence of Brod’s patriotic citizens[97] but also in the press, in Tyl’s Pražský Posel (Prague Messenger), or Havlíček’s Národní Noviny (National Newspaper).  J. Sochr[98] in the introduction of the letter of 6. 4. 1848 writes: "The fear of stirring up the mob" which was something even K. Seifert was afraid of, was one of the reasons why the scared bourgeoisie[99] so quickly organized the National Guards, to protect property and maintain order.  Part of the urban population, however, saw the guardsmen as the defenders of constitutional rights and freedoms.  We are interested in this letter because Pater Seifert, a chaplain in Německý Brod comments here on E. Krziwanek’s joining the National Guard.  He writes: "... And what I also dislike is that lieutenants Skřivánek of Věž and Mr. Kundrát of Květinov were elected - why, when as villagers they will not serve - and for decoration they are not needed; plus Skřivánek is eating away the local workers’ daily bread by bringing Věž’s craftsmen and labourers to till the fields here; he also delivers his beer to Slunce (a former pub “At the Sun” in the Lower suburbs of Deutchbrod - many are complaining about it! ..." The banner of the National Guard of the revolution of 1848 in Deutschbrod, however, was adorned by two embroidered pictures, provided by the Krziwaneks family, who were given the precious parts of the banner back in 50s and later on donated the two embroideries to the Jasoň choir in  Deutschbrod.[100]  One picture shows the municipal emblem, the one on the other side shows St. Wenceslaus.  The flag is now kept at the Muzeum Vysočiny Havlíčkův Brod.[101]

 

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The front of the Jasoň choir flag, with the embroidery which adorned the National Guard banner in 1848 and was donated by the Krziwaneks.[102] 

 

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The back of the Jasoň choir flag, with the embroidery which adorned the National Guard banner in 1848 and was donated by the Krziwaneks. [103]  

 

On April 21st 1848 Der Prager Zeitung newspaper published a German article by Eduard Krziwanek" Nachhall von der maehrischen Grenze"(Echo from the Moravian border), in which Krziwanek encourages accession to the all German League.  Here he calls for fixed, cordial unification with Germany and the Union.  He ends the article with the words: "Therefore, the venerable German club in Prague!  Hear our unified thousand voices in response which in our mountains stretches far: Just bravely pin a Grerman cockade on your hat right next to the Czech one!  Also, here in a village we know well the colors of black, red and gold, and to our Czech farmer their high and important meaning is not strange, despite some whisperings saying otherwise."

            Now we quote from a letter by Pater K. Seifert, from 24. April 1848: "Dear friend. Very strange things are happening here.  Mr. Skrivanek Ed. (who submitted an articile to German newspapers from 21.tm "Von der maehrisch Graenze") drives around the surrounding estates and invites all "zum deutschen Bund." - Today in the town hall in the great hallway on the table Dr. Pankrác held an explanation of the entrance to the German league, and Thursday there should be a meeting for other regions here at “Na Ulehlích”. - What do you think?  You are against it, but behold Brod - Věž - Lipnice - Okrouhlice - Přibislav - Polná - Štoky etc. from a large part very Czech places – are for it.  Mr. Skřivánek, against whom the local workers might soon rise up, commented that city officers should not even subscribe to Pražské Noviny (the Prague newspaper), because apparently they are asking the people to rebel against the masters - so? – it is about time that the people escape the ancient slavery.  By the accession Skřivánek perhaps wants to raise the sales of his liquor, which he is burning in Věž?  It is time to answer him. But in the German newspapers, as he does not read the Czech ones. ... Good bye, PK Seifert."  In Tyl’s Pražský Posel no. 9, year 1848, among other things it says," ... But thank God that the cause of this is always just a few crazy people and that they are misusing the good minds of our rural people to hoodwink them with shameful tricks.  And there we have, for example, Německý Brod.  For God's sake, there he can print anything he wants, that he wishes to belong to the German League! ... Doctor Pankrác!  Oh my gosh!  This is a charlatan, for whom the National Committee is not good enough, perhaps he wants to be an ambassador in Frankfurt, and is trying to confuse all good heads in Brod!  Kudos to him!  I can see him in my mind as he, after the deed, after confusing the whole nation of honest burghers (it was said that there was four hundred heads altogether) proudly marched from the City Hall and  towards - in the spirit to him related "Krživanek" from nearby Věž, he sent the message with the wind: " Rejoice, we won! We're in the German League! "

            Further developments are described in several other sources.  Let’s consider the report by prof. Jiří Rychetský in the article “Karel Havlíček, the First Deputy of Humpolec,” "... on April 26 Jan Danek, mayor of Věž arrived in the town (of Humpolec) with the news that their master, estate holder Skřivánek orders them to convene all citizens from around the neighborhood of Německý Brod on April 27 to a public meeting.  At this meeting a local attorney Dr. Pankrác is supposed to speak, and there is to be announced that it is necessary to send a note to the German parliament in Frankfurt and that the whole eastern “Čechie” (Bohemia) is requesting this.  For this reason, the people of Věž’s landowner distributed posters, inviting all of the surrounding towns and villages, to the meeting.  Only the city of Humpolec was omitted, because as the chronicler says, "they could see that here the Slavic spirit prevails, there we would rather harm than benefit them".[104]

            The resolution of Brod’s “Frankfurters” for election to the German Bund was published in the Prager Zeitung and Constituzionelles Blatt on 27 April 1848 and it was signed by Josef F. Kundrath, Eduard Kržiwanek, Karel Kalina, Lukáš Weidenhoffer, František Hallamásek, V. J. Zdeborský, Jan Spurný and JUDr. Pankraz.“[105]

            When the news about the meeting in Brod spread throughout Humpolec, the same day a meeting was convened with drummers of the National Guard. (We may add here that Colonel of the Humpolec’s Guard was a draper Kajetán Příborský.  To his son Krziwanek will later give his daughter as a wife.)  The officers and men discussed how the meeting could be prevented, so that the Czech people would not be seduced and that no deputies would be sent to Frankfurt, but only to the Czech parliament, which was to be held in Prague.  Humpolec’ citizens were well briefed from Havlíček’s newspapers about the negative significance of the elections to Frankfurt and its impact for our constitutional position.  The Národní Noviny often drew attention to the dangerous activity of Frankfurt’s Association of Germans in Bohemia the so called  Constitutional Association, whose members were Věž’s landowner Skčivánek and lawyer Pankrác .... The people of Humpolec were not forced against the all-german state and for the preservation of Austria (but constitutional) only for patriotic, but also for existential reasons.  Mostly drapers/fabric makers had at that time already established good sales contacts particularly with the Hungarian and Austrian Balkan countries, which protected them against import duties and lower quality cloth.  On the contrary, for Humpolec Greater Germany would mean considerable textile competition from industrialized German states.

 

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The card of the member of the National Guard in Humpolec with the signature of  Kajetán Příborsky

 

            When they had considered all these reasons they voted that on April 27 Humpolec’s National Guard would pulled out their arms on Věž and there landowner Skrivanek, by hook or by crook, will be talked out of his intention, and if necessary they would marched to Německý Brod to stop the meeting and preclude incorrect decisions.

            The important decision was leaked, however, the same day by a financial officer in Věž, but duly exaggerated.  Humpolec’s Guard is said to intend to kill landowner Skřivánek with his family and loot and destroy his castle.  The owner of the estate called immediately his workers and told them what disaster awaits him.  Tearfully he asked everyone not to abandon him and defend his property.  So the next day they armed themselves with weapons, and also with axes, forceps, and scythes.  Skřivánek allegedly fled to Německý Bord, and his wife and children reportedly sought protection in the morning at the wayside cross in the fields.  (Tyl’s Prague Messenger stated: " The news reached Wěž, where they were stunned, all items were bundled up and hid, as they thought that people from Humpolec will be there soon"[106])

            In Humpolec on April 27 already at five o'clock in the morning the Guard drummed to arms.  They all gathered in large numbers, but in the morning they were already in subdued mood, so it was decided that it would not be practical for the guard to run into Věž and Brod since this could bring bad consequences for the town.  It was therefore decided to select only the excellent speakers, and they were sent straight to Brod to the public meeting. Then the town physician Dr. Štulc, an excellent speaker, James Smrčka and Jakub Mottl, two classmates of Karel Havlíček, and six other members of the National Guard (Kajetán Příbroský was not among them.) were elected, and they immediately drove carriages toward Brod.  In Věž they were awaited by armed men who broke up peacefully when instead of armed guards they saw only a few people.“[107]

            Here we should add another version, which, according to an eyewitness was reported by Věž’s chronicle:  “In the year 1848 the Guard of Humpolec came to Věž, the castle was besieged and attempted to be conquered.  But when they rolled a few barrels of beer out of the brewery there was a general reconciliation.  Thus ended the memorable expedition of the Guard of Humpolec and will long be remembered."

 

         The next events in Brod are described in another letter by Pater Seifert: "Dear friend. ... And I want you to know that on the 27th - yesterday there was a "Meeting" on the city square, where first Pankrác spoke for the Association for Frankfurt and then Dr. Štulc from Humpolec in the name of Humpolec people who are against it – they did not like to listen to him, even though people called Bravo.  Then the Commandant of the Guard in the midst of his speaking shouted Garde zusammen! and started to drum, and kept going until Štulc stopped talking.  Pankrac also left, he could not endure to hear the truth.  Very strange things are happening here.  Humpolec’s people wanted to attack Křivánek’s castle for his sending his opinion to the newspaper.  Why are they threatning peaceful people.  We were always last in everything.  People from Polensko and  Chotěboř sent word that they will not participate ... I think there will be no more of such meetings.  It would not take much and Pankrac would get it, because he is not favorite among the people.  Good Bye, Your old friend Charles.”  It should be noted that the successful attempts of Humpolec’s were completed the next day when an expedition of farmers from Vez arrived in Humpolec and announced that they formed a section of the National Guard, and that they are putting themselves under the command of Humpolec.

            On a national scale, however, the whole event is obviously important: "... The only success (for which, obviously, they were proud) the frankfurtomans could pride themselves in the Czech region, namely the protest of Německý Brod against the National Committee and their agreement with the election, which took place on the 27th of April thanks to several renegades (attorney Pankratz and land owner Kriwanek).”[108]

            So, after the failure of the election to the German assembly in Frankfurt an election of deputies to the Czech assembly in Prague was held on June 13.  Even though the deputies were elected, their convocation was constantly postponed so that the Czech assembly never convened again.  On July 8 the election to the Reichstag in Vienna was announced.  The Czechs decided to send candidates for this council.  They did not want to give this up because this was the one chance that remained, if they wanted to exercise their rights. ... The right to vote, was given to every citizen at least 25 years old, his age had to be confirmed by the parish priest.  The Election was done through electors who were first elected in their districts with 250 to 500 voters.  The Humpolec’s electoral district included the city of Humpolec and the estates of Heralec, Želiv, Světlá, Lipnice, Větrný Jeníkov, Věž and part of Dolní Královice so it had about 50,000 inhabitants.  For the election of the Reich deputies in Humpolec there assembled about 157 electors, of which 109 deputies voted for Karel Havlíček, then a 27-year-old editor of the Národní Noviny (National Newspaper). ... Humpolec’s residents for a long time in advance tried to convince the voters, that a candidate must be an educated man, faithful to the nation, unscathed, and interpreted it so zealously that even Germans from Štoky ended up voting for Havlíček.

            That same day (07.08.1848) JV Krajník wrote to Havlíček to Prague about the outcome of the elections.  We are printing here a letter with the Krajník’s signature  "Kokořínský" probably chosen by the castle Kokořín from the neighborhood of Krajník’s birthplace.  "Mr. Havel. I announce to you that you are elected by 109 votes in Humpolec.  All voters amounted to 157.  Just now on the city square trumpets are sounding in trades in your honor.  I advise you to accept this county election, because after you the one with the most votes is Křivánek (and you know how he is), as he got 13 (votes) and after him court counselor Karl Komrs has the most.  Theres is therefore a danger that if you do not accepted Křivánek could easily become a deputy. Keep well, I am your faithful Kokořínský."  In fact Havlíček had also been elected in four other electoral districts.  Havlíček accepted the choice of Humpolec’s residents.  He represented Humpolec in the Reichstag in Vienna and then in the Constitutional Assembly in Kroměříž until December. Twelve days after the accession of a new emperor, on December 14, 1848, he resigned from the office because the Kroměříž parliament, with his endless chattiness and non activity was not to his liking and his national newspaper in his absence declined.  Humpolec’s residents then chose on 17. 1. 1849 as the new Deputy Antonín Komrs, the economic advisor of Count Thun in Libverda, a native of Humpolec.[109]"  Here is a place to get ahead a little and reveal that Komers, together with Krziwanek probably were not that far from each other in their ideas; the marriage of their children later in the future even made them relatives.

            To illustrate the atmosphere of the times we can add what else was said about Eduard Kržiwánek, among others by the Tyl in The Pražský Posel, page 8 : " ... a few renegades from higher circles and some lords, as Křiwánek from Věž ... and other to him similar weasels (“ptáčci”) . "  Or in Havlíček’s paper[110], "This is a piece of parliamentary mastery especialy from two Lords : landowner and citizen of Brod Skřiwánek  and from lawyer Pancras.  The other day Sřiwánek reportedly wrote an article to Prager Zeitung about the expansion of the anarchy etc. do you understand that?  I am not sure about that.  Who would now at the current flood of important matters be interested in small and obscured articles or even care about them. " ... Or elsewhere : " Prague’s Committee could not wait for the advice and opinion of the honorable authority of Kwětinov ( Kundrath ) and Věž ( Kržiwanek), and God willing that even in the future the Czech nation can get by without the advice of Německý Brod, the Kwětinov and Věž. "

 

In 1849 Eduard Křiwánek was elected the councilor of Nemecky Brod with 44 votes out of 84 candidates.  Likewise, in 1850, as we know from his brother-in law’s statement – the undersecretary of Governor Voith, who presented the four new councilors on 20th June 1850 to all "bourgeoisie in the council hall.  After completion of the introduction of the local committee the oath will be taken by the members of the committee in the main temple of the Lord."[111]

 

By 1851 Eduard Křiwanek is an active member of the Patriotic Economic Society – k.k. patriotisch ökonomische - Gesellschaft in Königreiche Böhmen. The main character of this influential institution was, here already mentioned, Anton Emanuel Komers, to whom we will return even more extensively later on.  The Economic Society was the founder of an agricultural school in Libverda, about which we will also talk in more detail.

 

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Marie von Krziwanek (1834-1898) and JUDr. Eduard Brzorád (1820-1898)

 

Marie Brzorádová born Edle von Krziwanek (1834-1898), Atelier von Geber Staegler, Elkergasse 128, Iglau [112]

 

In 1852 in the chapel of Věž, an eighteen year old daughter Marie Kržiwánková (1834-1898) married a 14 year older lawyer from Brod JUDr. Edward Brzorád (1820-1898).  More details about this relationship will be mentioned in the relevant chapters of the Familie Brzorád chapter.  Marie, because of her passion for aprons was later called "Schürzentante" in German = “apron Aunt”.  After the wedding she moved into an imposing, sightly, two-storied corner house No. 105 in Dolní Street in Německý Brod.  In the text by a descendant of her sister Hermina we read that "at Brzorád’s” in Německý Brod ... Erna and Herma often visited during the ballroom season.  Oh, there is one very memorable with teacher Lorenz!"[113]

 

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Marie Brzorádová roz. von Krziwanek (1834-1898)[114]

 

Mary led an exemplary household with the help of a maid, a laundress, a manservant, etc.  She was considered to be “a very noble and educated lady who came from the estate of Věž ... was for years a model of most noble  virtues[115]."  One obituary recalls her as “charitable woman, a dear lady, patriotic, good-hearted and humble”, the other as “the fairy godmother of all poor people in the city.”

 

Beautiful silver dessert cutlery, originally a part of a large set bears on the underside of the handle the initials "MK" in Gothic script.  The fork measured 17 cm; the knife 20.5.  Next to the silver hallmark there is a distinct numeral "2" (perhaps the last digits of the year of production) and on the front there is the maker’s label, ”MS.”  From the type of the hallmark we can infer the production of the late 18th century up to the year 1867.  The silverware was provided by the direct descendant of Věž’s Krziwaneks.  If the "MK" monogram stands for  Marie Krziwanek, it could belong to two people: the grandmother or her granddaughter.  Marie Krziwanek born Seegenschmied (1771-1842) or Marie Brzorád born Krziwanek (1834-1898).  The first one was Krziwanek from her wedding in 1785, the second only till her wedding in 1852.

 

 

 

 

 

Another preserved item that came down in the family[116] is a bulky Album - a herbarium with drawings, clippings, photographs and German, or French handwritten quotes.  As donors of the flowers are listed Hermine, sometimes "deine kleine Treue Irma", or Irmerl.  Elsewhere is a note about the death of Ernestine.  These suggests that the owner could be Marie Brzorádová née von Krziwanek.  In the album there is also a nice group photo of the family Eduard von Krziwanek from before 1869.  The quotes are on paper with embossing of the baronial crown and the letter "W" written in a castle of the Pachta family in Jablonné v Podještědí (in 1862).  The content of the album also shows that the owner maintained a close relationship and visited with relatives in Libková Voda (1861) - namely, Hermine Komers von Lindenbach (* 1842) or Marie Irma (1844-1929), whose cousin was Julius Prziborski (1824-1905), since 1857 the husband of Hermine née von Krziwanek (1839-1908).  A number of very nice colored drawings of neighboring domains, or birds were donated in about the years 1859-1860 by the neighbor from Květinov, who after graduating honed his skills in the management of the estate at his parents’ –  William Rychly (1837-1904).  Thus we now not only know how the now ruined castle in Mirošov looked, but also that they kept a nice parrot at the Věž’s castle.

            Among the cited authors in the album are Baron Ernst von Feuchtersleben, Friedrich Martin von Bodenstedt, Friedrich Rückert, and Johann Gottfried Herder, Friedrich von Schiller, August Graf von Platen-Hallermünde, Freiherr Franz von Sonnenberg, Otto Graf von Loeben, William Shakespeare, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Heinrich Daniel Zschokke, Rognette and Otto Friedrich Wilhelm Waiblinger.  Other parts bring excerpts with the following names: August Gottlieb Meißner, Julius Sturm, Theodor Storm, N., Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, R. Pruty, and more.  There are images of Karlstein and Nový Stránov castle, reminders of Karlovy Vary, Mariánské Lázně and other locations.

 

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The cover of theAlbum of the family of Marie Brzorad born von Krziwanek (cca 20x30cm)[117]

 

Not as much for artistic or documentary value, but to get a better glimpse into the tastes and interests of the girls in the middle of the 19th century, we tried to provide access to the whole album.  Due to the large volume of data it is placed on a special page: Album .

 

JUDr. Eduard Brzorád (1820-1898)[118]

 

The Brzoráds family in this generation already used the German language in their social, professional, as well as family relations.  However, we can say that their national feelings were still Czech.  Eduard Brzorád’s father Josef Brzorád (1777-1857) was a contributor to the National Museum, one of founders of Matice Česká and a classmate and friend of Josef Jungmann[119]; his uncle JUDr. et PhDr. Jan Filip Brzorád (1765-1851) a member of the National Committee of 1848; his brothers Karel and William friends of the national revivalists and members of the revolutionary year 1848 prof. Helcelet[120] and philosopher Hanuš[121].  His cousin Antonín Brzorád (1809-1877), the Nymburk mayor hosted and later became a benefactor of Božena Němcová[122].  At the same time we know that Edward Brzorád was a loyal Austrian, because he was even awarded the imperial order of Franz Joseph II.  And yet it was in his family where JUDr. Eduard Brzorád jr. and his sisters grew up as ardent Czech nationalists.  The whole fourth chapter - "Familie Brzorád" is dedicated to the Brzorád family.

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Oil factory and the Krziwaneks in Brixen

In 1853 an oil press factory was founded by Eduard Krziwanek with his partner František K. Havlíček (1823-1912), brother of Karel Havlíček Borovský and gentlemen Grünhof and Richlý, in Květinov near Německý Brod.  We learn a lot about this enterprise in the correspondence[123] between Francis Havlíček and his brother Karel, who was then in exile in Brixen. More about the role of Edward Krziwanek’s brother in law, Ferdinand Baron Voith von Sterbetz, who arrested Havlíček in Brod on the way to Brixen, and who was probably close to Havlíček is found in the chapter about the family Herites.  In the letters from Brixen’s isolation Havlíček wrote basically about two main themes - beekeeping and about his brother's company - the oil factory.  That is why the correspondence of Havlíček’s letters from that time, collected by Zelený, is rather tedious reading.  But not for the lovers of bees, and for those of us who are interested in the oil press factory and are interested in the comments about Eduard Krziwanek.  In the letters we find a note on how Krziwanek stopped in Brixen to visit Havlíček. Karel Havlíček urged his brother to be cautious - in cooperation with Skřivánek. Brother František, however, as we read at the end, regarded Skřivánek as the most reliable partner.

 

František Havlíček, brother of K. H. Borovský[124]

 

From the correspondence (with one exception) only the letters by Karel Havlíček were preserved, so we do not know the answers and we do not know to what he is responding.  We selected interesting comments that refer to Eduard Skřivánek.  The direct reference to Křivánek is in bold letters for better orientation:

"The change in your business would not have be to the worse; only, doesn’t Skrivanek have anything on his mind? ... to place the factory would be safer than in Věž where there are more opportunities for “leftovers”.  I also think they will need you, alright and that you need not to worry about being got rid of. ... If Skrivanek gives his half for the machines, you will need a lot less capital. "(14/03/1853 Brixen)

"... Concerning your factory I do not think that you have erred with Květinov; first of all, I'm kind of glad it escaped from the hands of Mr. Skrivanek and secondly it is better that it is closer to Brod ..." (March 31, 1853 Brixen)

„I have to announce to you that Věž’s[125] dropped in here with the whole family. That day, however, I had a singular accident and it has been the second one this year already.  Since spring this year only twice it happened to me that someone from Bohemia was here, and each time I was not at home.  There is about an hour away from our little apartment a brewery cellar in the rock, where we often go with Julie and Zdenka in the afternoon, and when someone new happens to be there (because it is the most excellent exit from Brixen) we stay there a little longer with them.  With the locals there is very little to talk about. ... The second time, there were Bavarians here and also we were long delayed and at that time Věž’s Skřivanek was at my place; but because he just happened to come when they were here for wine (as the cottage has a cellar of the innkeeper) he could go up and hung his visiting card on the doorknob of my room.  Especially because now in the summer when we come home late I do not go to my room, but we go straight to sleep, and I would not have learned about it until the next morning.  But it happened that in the brewery we were arguing about the economy, and I said that in England they already fatten a pig for 12 cents.[126] - Julie opposed to it. When I was already undressed, I remembered it, and I went into my room for a book to convince her.  There I found the visiting card - (what a coincidence!  Věž’s is just as powerful in raising pigs…), so I quickly dressed again and went to Elefant.  But they had just gone into their room and as the ladies were present I could not have been visiting them that late.  To my chagrin, I learned that they had been there all afternoon and were leaving in the morning about 5.30 am.  Yet I did not fail, at least in the morning to come to the coach but I hardly talked to him.  (Do not tell him about the pig, he would probably think it to be a bad joke.) ... "(June 13, 1853 Brixen)

 

The place of former Oil press factory in a postcard published by Gustav Jílovsky in Prague in 1915

 

“… Do not – together with Mr. Krziwanek- intrigue against other companions in any way; I myself think that they will not be any bother, and that all will go as you two wish. "(07/01/1854 Brixen)

"... I'm surprised that the last year you had such bad results in the factory! 5 measurements per cent of rapeseed oil!  It is not necessary to set up the factories as any miller can do that.  So Mr. Božek nicely tricked you all... Because of the factory I wish I could be there, because then both of us could supervise - the 4 eyes see more, and I would be really pleased.” (11/25/1854 Brixen)

At the end of the letter sent to Brixen by brother Francis, which is not included in Havlíček’s published correspondence, we read:

„In the factory we make great dealings this year.  At the current price of oil we all earn cleanly over 100 gulden of silver per day. ... All gentleman, I think 3 others are starting to appreciate the factory (only now they are beginning) and Křiwanek only regrets that we included them in our business, that he does not care that his benefit could have been so much greater at present, but rather the fact that they are causing many obstacles to our even more outstanding progress. This year if we had listened to Křiwánek, we could have had not a few hundred but a few thousand in our pockets.  But I take it also from the other side, I would have obeyed him there, only had he been holding a bag of money in his other hand... Grünhof intends to emigrate to Hungary, then buy there a larger farm.  As Křiwanek told me he has a buyer for his share of the factory, Jeníkov’s Baron is giving him 10,000 in silver but he wants 15 000.  Imagine dear brother! This is a joke.  He alone contributed only 2 000 and last year's earnings amounts only to about 500 silver.  But I can honestly say that I would give this money, if that coward did it.  Imagine, a guy who could best support the factory financially but does nothing, and is always in the way with his impracticality.  My greatest happiness would have been if I had listened to Křiwánek and had run the business with him only; we could have started in small, and we could have been way ahead by now.  My plan about  taking on a business was famous, I'm proud of it in front of the worldwide; imagine in 10 years the machines will not cost us any money, money with all the interest will be back in our pocket, and God willing there will be more capital.  If God gives us health in 10 years we will still not be that old, we still can start something together so your Zdenčinka, if nothing better happens by then, also has some pennies.  Only health and good friendship and nothing else, dear brother, we will miss. ... "(František Havlíček, brother of KH Borovský, Deutsch Brod 10/12/1854 - Brixen 16.12.154 (PNP fund KHB)

            The business partner “Rychly”, was probably Josef Richly (1804-1872)[127], lord of Mirošov.  "Grünhof" who "intends to emigrate to Hungary, and wants to give up his part of the business" was Eduard Fučikovky Knight von Grünhof from Zelený Dvůr (1814-1891), a member of the Provincial Assembly, a businessman in the glass industry and owner of the estate Úsobí.  The Květinov estate at that time (1852-1865) belonged to Prokop Richly (1806-1879), brother of Mirošov landowner Joseph Richly.  This oil factory was located in the no. 32 and 41 plat, which was called an oil factory for a long time, because there was processed linseed from Květinov, Věž and Úsobí’s estates.[128] Both of these businesses were short-lived as the main organizer Havlíček was harmed in his commercial business by the government, probably because of his famous brother, and on 27 January 1860 František Havlíček accepted the post of clerk in Prague.”[129]  After 1860 the factory was cancelled and part of it (No. 32) adjusted to become a blacksmith forge.[130]  We learn about the families Richlý and von Grünhof in more detail in the books by Jiří Bořecký[131]

 

Oil press factory in Květinov, as standing in 2006

 

Apart from a certain social isolation, Havlíček in Brixen did not materially suffer; his correspondence there offers some remarkable insights.  Because it otherwise does not relate to this work we could cite just one example of Havlíček’s approach to education, which must have bewildered his brother's wife.  After returning from Brixen, he lived in Brod at his brother František’s and was ready to punish their children.  "Anyway, it never harms to be more strict with children, as long as one shows them his love but does not just torture them for his own entertainment.  So for example in our household when Zdenka gets a beating from me, only, when it is needed (but my rule is: hardly ever, never in anger, but always till the blood draws, so it keeps longer in her memory) and she likes me all the same so much as she likes Julia, maybe even more."[132]

 

In 1856 Edward and Caroline Krziwanek celebrated their silver wedding in the family circle in the castle Věž, as his daughter Marie wrote in the Blue Memory Book.

 

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Eduard Krziwanek with wife Caroline née von Herites, probably between years 1852-1866[133]

 

 

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Visiting card of Eduard Křivánek (today’s common size, archive of Frána)



 

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Visiting card of "CAROLINE KRZIVANEK NÉE BARONNE DE HERITES" (archive of Frána)

 

The following year, in 1857 in Věž Hermine’s daughter Barbara (1839-1908) married Julius Příborský (1824-1905), an agricultural director in Peruc.  The wedding is recalled by one of her great-nieces: "Julius's wife was a lady of noble and generous ways and manners.  They married in the same year as my grandfather and grandmother, but certainly much more luxurious.  On a long, long wedding table there was a row of - sugar cones, covered with flower blooms.  This decoration was procured by newly established sugar refinery in Most, with which Julius was associated.”[134]

 

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Hermine Prziborski born Edle von Krziwanek (1839-1908), cutout from around year 1865

 

The Příborský family was among the major Humpolec’s cloth makers; the groom's father Kajetán was the mayor and in 1848 Humpolec’s commander of the National Guard.  Hard to say whether Eduard Krziwanek would have given his daughter to wealthy draper Příborsky back in the revolutionary year of 1848. Kajetán Příborský had clearly defended the economic interests of Humpolec’s drapers, who would have been harmed by the customs union with Germany, praised by Krziwanek as stated above.  The wedding witness was "Onkel Toni" the groom's uncle, her mother's brother, the economist AE Komers (1814-1893), the director of the agricultural college, the leader of the Patriotic-Economic Society of the Kingdom of Bohemia, Central Director of the estates of Count Thun and Count Chotek and a leading expert on the sugar industry.  We may add that Komers and his brothers, barons von Lindenbach (one was a sectional chief of the War Department, the second Minister of Justice) were the sons of Humpolec’s once wealthy draper and cotton merchant.

 

Julius Přiborský (1824-1905)

 

            Groom Julius Příborský due to his successful uncle and teacher AE Komers became not only his deputy at the agricultural college and the inspector of Komer’s estates in Most and Lžín, but most importantly the economic director of the Thun estate in Peruc and then the central director of the estates of Prince Thun-Hohenstein, or those of Count Chotek in Veltrusy.

It seems that the reason for the choice of the groom was his origin in Humpolec’s drapers the families of Příborský and Komers. To the families of Hermine and Julius Příborský and AE Knight von Komers we will come back in more detail in sections Familie Příborský and Familie Komers below.  Partly, because the marriage of their children will connect them, but also because it was their offspring who adopted the family name Herites.  Additionally while Julius Příborský as an economist became a worthy successor to the brilliant agricultural economist Křivánek,  Hermina and her children were those who insisted on defending the German element.  First, however, let us  finish the story of the parents - Edward and Caroline Krziwanek and remaining siblings - Edward and Ernestine.

 

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This photograph of the family of Věž’s Křivánek was inserted in the album. We can see Eduard Brzorád (standing second from left) and also Julius Prziborski in a comic cap, who is noticeably towering above them. Ernestina (seated far right) was at her wedding in 1868, eighteen years old, and because her future husband Karl von Kutschera is missing here, this picture seems a little younger. Here we also see Edward Krzivanek the younger. (magnification of the size of about 7x7cm)

 

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Eduard Edler von Krziwanek and Karoline in the ateliér of Winter, year 1862 (Frána’s archive)

 

Julius Příborský’s grandniece dedicated this note to the life at the castle of Věž and shared her memory : " A lot of guests, arriving in winter sleighs always gathered at the castle Věž near Německý Brod at the Krziwáneks.[135] Taking off their fur coats, scarves, foot-warmers and slippers; it was all carried away by an assistant to a special chamber; the assistant had only stumps instead of hands, but reportedly he quickly and skillfully cleaned and organized everything. "[136]

Another long and faithful servant of Věž’s castle was Anna, who had a very good mutual relationship to the local nobility.  It is clear from the text of a letter to Mary Brzorádová born Krziwanek as well as from her last will, she wrote at the age of 74.[137]

 

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Autograph of the procuration from Eduard Krziwanek to Edward Brzorád for the elections to the municipal council in the year 1861[138]

 

The contacts of the Krziwanek’s with the Richlý’s family are (apart from the Květenov’s oil press company) also documented in the album of the offsprings of Marie Krziwanek, where there are color drawings of birds as well as those of the neighboring estates by Wilhelm Richly.  Thanks to the drawing of a parrot and an attached note, for example, we learn a new detail about the interior of Věž’s castle. Although dating is harder to read (about "1859"), the word " Wěž" is obvious.

 

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A parrot by Wilhelm Richlý, dated 1859 in Wěž

 

            Furthermore, in the album cut and pasted on single sheet are three colored little drawings of the estates nearby Věž.  What they have all in common is the owner from the Richlý family.  This family owned estates Mirošov, Květinov and Kvasetice.  Below the drawing of květinov there is a signature of a later Lord of Mirošov "Wilhelm Richly ' a not clear date "05.28.18?9" .

 

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Castle Mirošov (District Jihlava), demolished in the year 1986

 

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Castle Kvasetice, village Květinov, district Havlíčkův Brod, today a ruin

 

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Květinov

 

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Another drawing by William Richlý has a well -read dating : “Wilím Richly , Kwětinau” 24 January 1860.

 

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A bird signed by William Richlý

 

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Birds signed by William Richlý

 

William Richly[139] (1837-1904) painted the pictures at the time of conclusion of the cooperation of his uncle and his father at Květinov’s oil factory in the years 1859-1860, when after graduation he returned to Květinov, so here he could perfect his skills in his future management and administration of the estate. William's niece Berta Bártová née Schmidt (1872-1963), who lived at the castle in Věž after 1945 was a painter too.[140]

 

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Vilém Richlý (1837-1904)[141]

 

The spa guestlist Karlsbader Curliste Nr.35 of 10th June 1861 announced the arrival of the Krziwaneks on Thursday 6th June:  „Herr Eduard Křivanek, Gutsbesitzer mit Gemalin und Fräulein Tochter Ernestine aus Věž in Böhmen“  They stayed in „Gold. Löwe, Egerstr.“  There were 4 persons altogether.

 

In the years 1861-1869 Eduard Krziwanek was a member of the Provincial Assembly of the Czech Kingdom.  Elected on 27.3.1861 and also 26 – 28. March 1867 as a landowner to represent the fully owned estate (allod) holders.[142]

 

The Národní Listy newspaper from March 16, 1867 on page 3 reports on a meeting of mayors of the district in Německý Brod, where Eduard Křivánek and JUDr. Eduard Brzorád, were introduced as candidates to the assembly about whom " we learn about his way of thinking and ideas."

            “Letters. From Německý Brod, on 9 March. (Agitation before election).

This day representatives and mayors belonging to the local election district have gathered here invited by the royal and imperial district office. The purpose of this meeting was for the mayors to learn that in the upcoming elections to the parliament it will not be as in the past when the election was directed by the imperial offices, but it will be the resolution of voters themselves, whom they want to choose to take on the election’s management.

            On that occasion, however, the men suggested received the trust of the opposing side but not of national parties. - The Apostles appeared at this meeting appointed to convert the people of the country to another belief; we must, however, admit that we expected that the opposing party (if the handful of enemies who is to be found in our district can be called so) will lead other armor-bearer into the battle, than the ones we met.

            In fact, mayors David and Isak and Josef Kraus of Lípa appeared before the assembled and began to speak in this sense: Dear citizens, you know that we used to have as our representative in parliament, Mr. Zeleny; this time, however, we will no longer vote for him because he adheres too strongly to the Czech crown, for which he had already received an appropriate reprimand from the very district council (that is, from the mayor and Mr. secretary).  We will,  therefore, vote not for him any more. - But I recommend a man of great merit of our dear homeland instead. He is a settled down man, born and raised among us. His heart is burning with love for us Czechs, on each occasion he vigorously advocated for us.  This man is Mr. Ed. Křivánek, owner of the farm Věž. (Former member of parliament representing  the Prince Karl Auersperg landlords’s party, and now again by this party nominated. - original note of the editor).  Mr. Kraus undoubtedly saw on the faces of those present, that he had not appointed a darling of our people, or perhaps his own conscience told him not to play the role as praiseworthy so he just added, "but, if you did not have enough confidence in Mr. Křivanek, I will suggest for you to vote for Mr. Schwarzl or JUDr. Ed. Brzorád, but please do not vote for Mr. Zelený.

            Although none of the people present said anything, Mr. Kraus could tell from their faces that it will be Mr Křivánek who will be selected, for otherwise it could not be, since Mr. Křivánek has such a powerful protector.

            But for what we are especially thankful to Mr. Kraus is, that he told us of the thinking of Dr. Brzorád; we never considered him our sincere fellow citizen, but we have never thought he would let Mr. Kraus nominate him a candidate for parliament especially at a time when such candidature suggests evident direction of political nature, to which the nominee is inclined - But no matter how certain gentlemen stand on their heads, let them consider us villagers to be so short-sighted who can be fooled.

   The outcome of elections will show a common sense which we thank God still have, when it comes to a matter so important and so we again elect our former deputy Mr. Zelený.”[143]

 

Until 1866 E. K. was at the provincial council with his brother-in-law baron Ferdinand Voith von Sterbez and in the years 1866-7 with a landowner in Lžín Antonín Komers.  We find a mention about E. K.  in the stenographic protocol from 1861, when he wanted to present a draft law on land consolidation with regard to drainage.  This point, however, was postponed.  It came on the agenda of a sitting two days later on 21 April 1861, however, when he first submitted a proposal for the adoption of a supplementary section of the Act that would allow exemptions (Befreiung) for farmers' sons who attended agricultural school and completed it excellently.  Here we might mention that in 1860 Julius Příborský worked as a director of an agricultural school in Libverda and since 1861 as an executive deputy.[144]  It should be added that it was in the years 1861-2 that Eduard Carl Edler Křivánek *1844 attended the higher level (Höhere Abtheilung) of Libverda agricultural school.  Also the son of AE Komers, Emanuel (1873-4), Julius's younger brother Karl (1853-4), and their nephew Julius Jelinek (1866-7) studied there.[145]

 

Eduard Krziwanek was a member of the Imperial Council of Austrian Parliament in the years 1863-1866.[146]

 

According to the „Liste der angekommenen Kur- und Badegäste in der königl. Stadt Kaiser-Karlsbad“ from June 23, 1865 20th of this month Krziwanek Caroline, the wife of a landowner from Věž with daughter, and Mrs. Marie Brzorad, wife of lawyer and notary of Německý Brod arrived in Carlsbad.  Their place of stay is listed as, "Rubin, Kreuzg."[147]

 

In Pražský denník (The Prague daily) in its issue of October 27, 1866 on pages 2 and 3, amongst other honored they published not only the name of Eduard Brzorád, as we already know, but also local mayor of Věž Edward Křivánek:

   "His Majesty with his own handwritten memorandum in 26 of October of this year, in recognition of loyalty, especially for the cause of recent events of war, proven excellent in the Czech Kingdom and the Czech capital city of Prague, and in recognition of the abundant acts of patriotism, loving fellowship and genuine affection, showed to wounded and ill soldiers, , as well as in recognition of universal governmental support, as well as of the operations of the army, graciously granted the following awards: Knight Commander's Cross of Fr. Jos. ... Knight's Cross of.,... Golden Cross of Merit with a crown ... Golden Cross of Merit, Silver Cross of Merit ... the crown ... Silver Cross of Merit, the Highest Expression of Satisfaction: ... Christiana Princess Colloredo; ... Ferdinand Menčík in Německý Brod; ... Eduard Brzorad, a municipal councilor in Německý Brod; Vojtěch Weidenhöfer, a municipal councilor in Německý Brod; ... Eduard Křivánek, the local mayor in Věž;… “

 

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The Křiváneks around 1865. Standing from left : ( ? ) ( ? ), Erna , seated from left: Mary, Karl Baron Kutschera , Hermine[148]

 

 

 

December 24, 1868 at 17:00 in the chapel of Věž, the last daughter - Ernestine Krziwanek (1840-1877) married Karl Baron von Kutschera (1836-1890), 73rd Infantry Regiment captain.  Charles's mother was the girlfriend of Caroline "Freundin Jenny," and he was baptized in a family baptismal clothes (Taufzeug) of Carolina.  The friendship of Caroline Krziwanek born Baronin von Herites and Johanna Baronin von Kutschera née Countess Pachta and Baroness of Rájov (Pachta whose family estates Bezno were adjacent to Stránov, and Gabel, Czech Jablonné v Podještědí) turned into a relationship now.  The wedding announcement that has been preserved in the archives of the National Museum, was sent to “Madame le Baronne Helene Trauttenberg née Comtesse Pachta”.  After Jenny and the wives of Count Mirbach, Aloisie and Matilda, Helene was the last of the sisters née Pachta whom we have not mentioned in this work yet.[149]  It remains to add that their brother Francis Count Pachta of Rájov (1814-1886) was Ernestine and Karl von Kutschera’s witness at the wedding.  The last sibling of the family of Count Pachta from Bezno is Robert (1817-1895), whose descendants live in Germany and Austria today.[150]  We will return to the family von Kutschera further below.

 

The wedding announcement, Frána’s archive

 

 

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Ernestine Baroness von Kutschera bron Krziwanek (180-1877), around the year 1865, cut out

 

 

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Carl Freiherr von Kutschera (1836-1890), about 1865, cut out

 

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Ennoblement

25. 4. 1869, Wiener Zeitung readers could read in reports by the court office that His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty by the supreme decision of 22. April of that year deigned to elevate a landowner Edward Křiwanek to the noble class in recognition of meritorious patriotic and society beneficial services without tax.”  The report was also released in Prague daily: “Pražský denník”.[151]  His daughter Mary ,made a note about that in her Blue Memory Book, which says that her father was promoted without asking for it (Ohne eigene Bewerbung erhoben).  Perhaps she wanted to emphasize that her father was not the bearer of any orders.  Investment of some orders carried an Imperial patent of nobility but their winner - the candidate had to ask for it.

 

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Ennoblement in Wiener Zeitung from  25. 4. 1869

 

Ennoblement is confirmed by Karl Friedrich von Frank zu Döfering in his list of ennobled persons Alt-Österreichisches Adels-Lexikon.[152]  (Contrary to other contemporary almanacs and schematisms.)  The copy of the ennoblement charter, however, according to the staff of Unit 2, SUA in Prague is not located there.  Equally unfortunate news was the statement by the director of the Vienna Österreichisches Staatsarchiv Allgemeines Verwaltungsarchiv.  A copy of this "Adelsdiplom" was unexpectedly preserved in the annals of the village Věž, although it was started up by the faithful chronicler as late as the year 1888.  The chronicle is now stored in the archive SOkA Havlíčkův Brod.  Dr. Jan Županič provided an official heading conspectus: "1869 October, Vienna (Wien), Emperor Franz Joseph I. elevates by the supreme decision of April 22, 1869 Edward Krziwánek, landowner in Bohemia, in recognition of his charitable and humanitarian activities to the nobility, awarded him a coat of arms, a predicate “von” and a honorary title “Edler”."

 

“Wir Franz Joseph Der Erste von Gottes Gnaden Kaiser von Österreich,

apostolischer König von Ungarn, König von Böhmen etc.etc. haben nachdem Uns zur Kenntnisz gebracht wurde,

dasz Unser lieber und getreuer Eduard Krziwánek in Jahre 1799 in Iglau geboren,

Gutsbesitzer in Böhmen, sich durch seine Wirksamkeit zur Förderung des National-Wohlstandes,

sowie durch sein gemeinnütziges und humanitäres Wirken im

Allgemeinen hervorragende Verdienste envorben hat,

Uns in unserer kaiserlichen und königlichen Machtvollkommenheit bewogen gefunden,

mit unserer kaiserlichen Entschlieszung vom 22.April 1869 ihm sammt seinen ehelichen Nachkommen

den Adelstand

zu verleihen, demselben die Führung des Ehrenwortes

“Edler”

zu bewilligen und zugestatten, dasz Derselbe, sowie seine ehelichen nachkommen sich der hach dem Gesetze

mit dem Adelstande verbundenen Rechte erfreuen und insbesondere sich des nachstehenden beschriebenen Wappens bedienen dürfen als:

 

Im blauen Schilde, welchen ein silberner  Querbalken durchzieht, ein Thurm aus rötlichem Quaderstein mit schwarzen Thor und zwei Fenstern überdiesem nebeneinander stehend auf einem aus Fuszrande  aufsteigenden goldenen Dreiberge, auf  der mitleren der drei Thurm ziennen steht eine zum Fluge geschickte natürliche Lerche mit einer schrägrechts geneigten goldenen Kornähre im Schnabel. Auf dem Hauptrande des Schildes ruhet ein  gekrönter Turmierhelm, von welchem blaue mit Silber unterlegte Decken herabhangen. Die Helmkrone tragt einen geschlossenen, blauen, von einem silbernen Querbalken durchzogenen Adlerflug, welchem drei goldene Kornähren an blätterigen Halmen entwachsen.

 

Zur Beurkundung desen haben Wir gegenwärtiges Diplom mit unserem kaiserlichen Namen eigenhändig uterzeichnet, und Unser kaiserliches Majestatssiegel beifügen lassen.

Gegeben und ausgefertigetmittelst Unseres lieben und getreuen Ministers des Innern Dr.Carl Giskra, Ritters Unseres Ordens des Eisernen Krone, erster Klasse, Ritters Unseres Leopold Ordens etc.

In Unserer Reichs-Haupt und Residentzstadt Wien, am fünften Oktober des Jahres: Ein Thausend acht Hundert neun sechzig

Franz Joseph m.p.

Der Minister:

Dr.Carl Giskra, m.p.

Nach Einer Kaiserlichen und königlichen Apostolischen majestät Hochsteigenem Befehle

Adolf Ritter von Chaloupka m.p.

k.k.Ministerialrath.”

 

            From this copy of the ennoblement charter, whose original Věž’s chronicler probably borrowed from Edward Krziwanek the younger (1844-1896) in 1888, we learn that the noble title "Adelstand", honorary title nobleman "Edler" was bestowed by emperor on the revered and loyal Edward Krziwanek, born in 1799 in Jihlava, a landlord in Bohemia landlords.  This was in merit for his strong support of national welfare, as well as the nonprofit and charitable activities in connection with the general tasks resulting from them.  The title belonged also to all his legitimate descendants.  His wife seemed not to be included and we know the title was not used in her death notice.  It was apparently used on her grave ledger, though.[153]

            All three daughters were already married at that time, so at first glance the ennoblement did not concern them since a woman assumes the status from her husband at her marriage.  Ernestine, however, became a Baroness and Hermine’s descendants reached the nobility status too, so the Krziwanek name later appears in some of the nobility almanacs, where they are listed as born "Edlen von Krziwanek.”[154]  Even with Marie the title (von) was used on her death notice, which gives the Czech variant "rozená ze Křivánku".  Here we should bear in mind, for example, that for admission to a noble institution (E.g. Damenstifts), or for appointment to certain offices proving the origin from 16, or 32 noble ancestors was required.  Let us also mention a little known fact that not only the unauthorized use but also non-use of the title and the coat of arms in official contacts and official documents was illegal.  This included even the tombstones.[155]  The title can also still be seen today on the grave of Edward Křivánek the younger.

               Under the nobility charter Eduard nobleman Křivánek (Edler von Krziwánek) and his legitimate descendants could use a coat of arms.  Against the background of a blue shield, through which a bar passes, we see a tower (“Věž”) of reddish stone blocks with a black gate, two windows and three merlons. It stands on three golden triple hills.  There is a lark (“Skřivánek”) standing on the center merlon on the tower.  It is shown in natural colors with a golden rye cob, slanted to the right, being held in its beak.   The main shield consists of a crowned tournament helm, from which blue and silver backed covers hang.  The crown on the helm bears closed blue eagle's wings through which a silver crossbar passes; from the wings to three golden ears of corn on the stalk full of leaves which are growing.

Thus in the coat of arms we see the surname of the nobleman (lark = skřivan), the estate’s name (tower = Věž) as well as the field in which Eduard Krziwanek worked (ears - agriculture).  Because there is only one crest helm, it is clear that it is a coat of arms of the lowest rank nobleman “Edler”.

 

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An illustrative sketch by Onřej von Mrzilek 2006

 

 

ALMANACH ČESKÝCH ŠLECHTICKÝCH A RYTÍŘSKÝCH RODŮ 2010 (CZECH ALMANACH FOR NOBLE AND KNIGHT FAMILIES 2010) by Karel Vavřínek and his team brought an entry "Křivánek" in which we find the representation of the coat of arms by Ing. Arch. Miroslav Sýkora. In this edition, we also find the entry "Heyrovský of Rowenov" which thanks to the relationship to Nobel Prize winner Jaroslav Heyrovsky the line of JUDr. Leopold Heyrovsky and Clara Hanl von Kirchtreu is stated.  Other related entries in this edition are "Neupauer" (The buyer of Nový Stránov after von Herites) and "Sebenář von Herrenfels" (postmaster and owner of the home in Německý Brod, where von Herites moved).[156]

 

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Von Krziwanek’s coat of arms[157]

 

The activeness of Edward Krziwanek did not slack off after the ennoblement. In 1869 we find him on the voters list of the municipal council along with honorary citizens Ferdinand Voith von Sterbez, or Edward Brzorád. 

 

From Schematism for 1870, we know that on his farm, where a distillery was in operation, Eduard Krziwanek had an administrator and an “adjutant”.

 

"In the country’s Chabrus elections in Bohemia 22. April 1872, in the landowning curia, along with the Conservative Party the following members abstained from voting: Brzorád Jozef, Chlum, Vidovice; or Komers Antonín and Marie, Lžín, Mostov.  Conversely, for the candidates of the winning party, which supported a centralist, pro-Viennese direction of Cisleithanian political development the following members voted: Komers Jaroslav Emanuel and Marie Barons von Lindenbach, Lipková Voda, Vlasenice; Krivánek Edward, Edler, Věž; Kučerová Johanna Baroness, Madam, Pachta Wilhelmine, Countess, Trauttenberg Helena, Baroness, Pachta František and Robert, Counts, Bezno; Karel Ludvík Kučera, Baron, Čelín; Pankrác František, JUDr., Chranšovice, Chřáštany."(Národní Listy, April 23, 1872)[158] Thus, with the elimination of a Czech federalist majority the political system of monarchy after the upheavals of the late '60s and' 70s has stabilized and the Czech constitutional aspirations were rejected.

 

At least in the years 1874-6 Eduard Krziwanek was a member of the provincial government subcommittee to organize a land tax in Chrudim. (Another member of the committee was, for example, Count Rudolf Chotek, close to AE Komers and Julius Prziborsky.)

 

In January 1876 Eduard Krziwanek together with his wife Caroline act as godparents at his granddaughter Anna Brzorádova’s baptism, which took place in Německý Brod, in the Brzoráds home.

 

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The death notice of Karoline Krziwanek born Baronin von Herites, Druk A. Riedl in Deutschbrod

(Let’s notice the missing noble title with both Krziwaneks)

 

In March 1876 Krziwanek Caroline, née Baronin von Herites dies and is buried in the chapel in Věž.  In June her husband Eduard Edler von Krziwanek died and is buried next to his mistress (wife).  The obituary is sent to Countess Natalie Wratislav born Mirbach.[159]  In 1878, the Krziwaneks were transported to the grave no. 187 on St. Adalbert Cemetery in Německý Brod, (Their son Edward von Křivánek the younger was buried in the next grave no. 188 in 1896.)  The graves are located by the cemetery wall in which the entrance gate is, approximately in the middle of it.  Bequests or other reports or inheritances are not available.  We only know that for example the Inn At The sun was in 1892, owned by "Marie Brzorádová and Hermina Příborská, minors Arthur and Johanna Barons von Kutschera", the two living daughters and a third child, of now already buried Ernestina.

 

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The obituary of Eduard Edler von Krziwanek ( 1799-1876 ), Druk A. Riedl in Deutschbrod

 

 KH Borovský and his brother talked about Edward Křivánek – a farmer with respect and even the words of the German economist Leonhard Miksch from 1938 agree with them: “Provincial and imperial deputy Eduard Edler von Krziwanek, owner of the farm Věž and an excellent farmer was the first who managed to raise the revenue of the farming significantly and make vast improvements, namely drains, starting the use of artificial fertilizers, or starting alcohol production. " ... Ein hervorragender Landwirt , war der erste , der durch Drainage , Anwendung von Künstliche Dünger , Begründung der Spirituserzeugung day Ertrag der Landwirtschaft wesentlich zu steigern Verstand."[160]

 

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A collage of family of  Eduard Edl. von Krziwanek (Frána’s archive)

 

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Death anouncement of Edward Edler von Kržiwanek in newspapers (archive Frana)

 

The search for Křivánek graves was successful at St. Adalbert Cemetery in Německý (today Havlickuv) Brod in 2015. Both tombs were actually located at the northern wall, roughly in the middle of it. It is not hard to find a headstone with a cross at the grave of Edward Krziwaneka the younger. (1844-1896). This is currently also numbered “H 67”.

 

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The graves of the Krziwaneks at St. Adalbert Cemetery in Německý (today Havlickuv) Brod in 2015[161]

 

Edward’s parents, originally resting in the chapel of the castle of Věž, were transported to the adjacent grave (no. 187).

 

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The graves of the Krziwaneks at St. Adalbert Cemetery in Německý (today Havlickuv) Brod in 2015[162]

 

After cleansing and moistening an engraved inscription appeared.  A little surprising fact is that the text on the gravestone ledger is fully in Czech. (Both obituaries were in German.)  The second highlight is the title of Karolina: "Šlechtična (noblewoman) ze Křivánku”.  Karoline’s death notice only mentioned "born Baronin Herites". But the inscription on the gravestone board says:

 

„EDUARD

šlechtic ze

KŘIVÁNKŮ

nar. 17 2?/1 99     zem. 18 26/6 76

 

KAROLINA

šlechtična ze

KŘIVÁNKŮ

nar. 18 3/5 04     zem. 18 24/3 76”

 

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The detail of the Krziwaneks’ grave ledger at St. Adalbert Cemetery in Německý (today Havlickuv) Brod in 2015.[163]

 

 

Not far away, down the aisle is a grave of spouses Johann and Barbara von Herites into which  JD. Eduard Brzorád with his wife Marie, born Křivánek were also later buried, and which is now labeled B 27. JD.  Edward Brzoráda the younger has his grave in the same aisle too, today marked A 134.  These are the three places where we can, when visiting the picturesque cemetery,  come and pray for the souls of our ancestors.

 

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Postcards with the "New House " and castle Vez

 

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Eduard Edler von Ernest Krziwanek (1799-1876) on the balcony of Věž castle – with greenhouse in the background[164]

 

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The sketch of Křivánek’s coat of arms in color.[165]

 

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Ernestine Baroness von Kutschera née von Krziwanek (1840-1877) and Karl Freiherr von Kutschera (1836-1890)

 

In the family von Kutschera we should not fail to mention Johann Nepomuk Baron von Kutschera (1766-1832).  He was an imperial privy councilor (kaiserlicher Geheimrat), one of the highest imperial generals ”Feldzeugmeister.”  His father Carl was awarded a hereditary noble title in 1805 after 51 years of faithful service as a simple clerk, administrator of the Zemské Desky, himself the son of Litomerice’s burgher Matthew, who was a manager of the Strahov Premonstratensian estates.  Shortly after that, in 1805  Johann Nepomuk was appointed (and remained until his death), first aide to Emperor Francis to whom he was very close.  This way he got ahead of other higher nobility at court.[166]  “Only in Vienna over sixty officials carried out the oversight of private correspondence and made copies (called intercepts), which traveled daily to the police ministry and then to the emperor's office, where they entertained the adjutant, Baron Kutschera.[167]  He was in favor of Empress Maria Theresa and a certain lady-in-waiting, who sided with him.  The adjutant Johann spent time with the emperor not only in tête–à–tête conversations but also with music.  The Emperor played violin, but not particularly well and adjutant Johann managed to keep a stone face during some bad notes when he played with him in a quartet.[168]  The emperor had therefore forgiven him for absolutely scandalous participation in Vienna nudist balls![169]  For his loyal service and unambitious behavior Johann won for himself and his two brothers a baronial title in 1819.  He bought a farm in Bohemia called Čelín; being himself a bachelor he bequeathed it to his brother Joseph.

 

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Johann Nepomuk Freiherr von Kutschera (1766-1832)[170]

 

Josef Carl von Kutschera (1769-1855), grandfather of the groom, who inherited Čelín after his brother, was the imperial and gubernatorial counselor and “podkomoří”  (“Unterkämmerer” = high official of the Bohemian Estates) to the Kingdom of Bohemia and a regional governor in Sázava.  He was a master of playing the cello.[171]  Mainly, however, he was a close friend of Mozart "intimer Freund Mozarts" as stated in his obituary 28. 1. 1855, which further emphasized his role as assessor of the Royal Commission for the Estates Theatre supervision, as well as other credits for a church music society.  In the committee, for example Count Johann Pachta sat with him and when deciding on the new Director of the Estates Theatre, he was the only one who stood up for former director and Czech patriot Štěpánek, and against "Viennese Stöger " who was recommended by Archduke Karel František, or Minister Count Kolovrat.[172] (Count Jan Pachta was the famous Prague host of Mozart, who is said to have locked him in his room of his palace in 1778  until he wrote the 6 German Dances.  The Pachta band rightaway rehearsed and played to the host later that day before lunch.)[173]

 In his room Baron Kutschera had about 30 clocks and etched in the memory of his grandson is a lunch, where, at noon this whole clock arsenal opened fire - "das ganze Uhrenarsenal drauflosschlug."[174]

 

 

Nice photos of Chateau Čelina could be found on

http://www.hrady.cz/wnd_show_pic.php?picnum=103869

 

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The coat of arms of von Kutschera in color[175]

 

         Joseph's son Johann (1804-1865), who married Jenny Pachta was the imperial and royal court councilor (Hofrat).  His son writes about him: "he was serious, keen intellect, knowledgeable and a good caring father.  He loved and adored his wife, who loved him too ... with whole fervor.  Dad's sharp tongue and wit, his easy irritability towards superiors would not let him reach the level that would correspond to his abilities.  His motto was not to get defeated.  He, nevertheless, represented that honorable cornerstone of Austrian public servants, for whom Austria could be proud of.  Other features were: strong character, as a clerk blameless, the love for the emperor and homeland and rather a freer spirit .. "[176]

 

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Johann Nepomuk Fr. von Kutschera (1804-1865)[177]

 

Let’s mention also a letter by Karel Havlíček, in which he writes to his parents to Německý Brod in 1840, before entering the seminary and mentions Baroness Kučerová.  We do not know with certainty whether he is talking about "Jenny," her mother in law, or any other character, but the place or time do not dispute that possibility:  "News of the intercession of Baroness Kučerová would be quite in place, but I do not care for such recommendations.  Where would the world be if females who probably do not understand anything, would recommend men to the priesthood.  The Archbishop is a sensible man, my religion professor will recommend me and I think it is the most direct and best way.  A professor’s recommendation is the best because he is doing it just from my credits, otherwise I'd never seen him before.  However, I can not say whether I will be accepted.  However, if I were as sure that I will be hanged, as I am sure of my acceptance, I would not be happy with it at all.“[178] 

 

Apart from Johann (1841-1926, Statthaltereirat, wirklich. Hofrat  ), who is the author of family memories and in whose name the line has been extinguished in the next generation, and the Ernestine’s groom Karl,  Johann Baron von Kutschera (1804-1865) had only two sons, Oscar and Hugo,both majors who were also the Knights of Malta and remained unmarried.

 

Familie Baron von Kutschera around the years 1858-1860

(from left: Johann *1804, Karl *1836, Oskar *1844, Johanna – Jenny *1806, Johann *1841, Hugo *1847)[179]

 

Karl Joseph Leo Baron von Kutschera (1836-1890)[180] was born in Vienna.  He served in the army in the rank of k. u. k. Captain (Hauptman).  His brother Johann said about him, "Karl, less inclined to sciences was soon attracted to a free military life.  He was cheerful and of light minds and lived intensely in his beloved Italy, where he served in Rome in the period of ecclesiastical state.  He was of a cheerful nature, he eschewed to remain in serious situations and had the means to chase his worries away, for which he was proud.  He called it "Abbeuteln " – shaking down.[181]  He married twice, left behind five children, and when he fell seriously ill he also took it as it came and peacefully died in age of 52.  He lived merrily and merrily died, said all those grieving, but we wept for him."[182]  The obituary read that he was the owner of Military Merit Cross with a war decoration and a War Medal.[183]

 

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Militär=Verdienstkreuz m.d. Kriegsdecoration (Establised 1849)a Kriegsmedaile (established 1873)

 

Karl inherited the Čelín estate from his father (+1865) with 285 ha of fields, meadows, pastures, ponds, gardens and woodland, brewery, mill and brick factory.  In Čelin there is a nice chateau and chapel probably by JB Santini.  He married Ernestine Krziwanek (1840-1877) on December 24, 1868 at 17:00 in the chapel of Věž, as 73rd Infantry Regiment captain.

 

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Ernestine Bar. von Kutschera born von Krziwanek  in the 1862  at that time 22 years old

(M. L. Winter, Photograph, PRAG, Graben 988) located in Album Voith-Herites von Sterbez

 

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Cut out from the tableau of Ernestine and Karl Freih von Kutschera

 

Ernestine gave birth to two children.  On 12th July 1869 Arthur Franz Oskar (1869-1924) in Vienna and on 8th August 1870 in Věž a daughter Johana Nep. Karolina Wilhelmine Antonia (1870-1948), who was baptized on the 18th.. According to the parish register Karl was a pensioned captain by then and the owner of the manor „Čellin“.  His mother Johanna „freyin Kutschera geb. Gfin. Pachta“ resided in Vienna Nr.319 and together with „Eduard Edler von Krziwanek“ (as he put it in his own hand) stood as godparents.

 

 On 8th February 1877 Ernestine died of typhus, and is buried in the family tomb of the von Kutscheras in Borotice.  The cemetery has been removed since and there seem to be no trace of the graves near the church.

 

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The death notice of Ernestine Baronin von Kutschera born Edle v. Krziwanek

 

11.4. 1877 Karl was elected in a by-election as member of the provincial Assembly of the Czech Kingdom, as a landowner to represent the fully owned estate (allod) holders, where he works until 1882.[184] 

 

In 1883 he marries again to 25-year Baroness Maria von Kielmannsegg (1858-1945), with whom he has three sons Ernst, Franz and Karl.  His new wife unfortunately survived them all - two died in a battle, and the only one grandson from Ernst shot himself.  Although Baron Karl survived his first wife Ernestina by 13 years, he died in Heinstetten at age 54 on 3rd July 1890.

 

In 1892  Arthur and Jenny owned a share of the U Slunce pub in Německý Brod, which was, along with the surrounding fields inherited by all Křivánek’s daughters.

 

In 1892 Johanna / Jenny née Baronin von Kutschera (1870-1948) married a lieutenant of 14th Artillery Regiment, later a captain, Eugene Renkin (1867-1919) in Schottwien.  His father was Edouard Renkin, Consul General of the Kingdom of Belgium, winner of the Leopold Order, Commander of the Austrian Order of Franz Joseph, and Knight of the Order of Iron Crown of the third class; his mother was Philippine Renkin born Lejeune.  They lived in Innsbruck and had two children - the third, Jenny (1896*) died at the age of one.  Renkin’s son Karl (1895-1917) died on the Italian front in the battle at Sochi wounded to the head, his sister Ernestine née Renkin married an officer - Major Rudolf Schmid. Erna Schmid-Renkin“ died at 34, buried on 25 February 1928 in Innsbruck, where they lived. Their children were Hans and Erni, who was born in 1917 and got married in 1936. They remain the last uncontacted branch of the Krziwaneks descendants so far.

 

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The wedding announcement of Eugene Renkin and Freiin Jenny von Kutschera – take note of "von Skrivanek" corrected to Krziwanek. (Frána’s archive)

 

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The birth announcement of Erna Schmid-Renkin (1894-1928) (Frána’s archive)

 

In 1893 Čelín is sold to a business man from Prague, Gustav Adámek, whose descendants still to this day (2017) reside and farm here, after the restitution of 1991.

 

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Image 52 Family Renkin 1907, from left: Karl (1895-1917, Hauptm. Eugen, Johanna (1870-1848), Ernestine later Schmid)

 

Jenny's brother Arthur Baron von Kutschera (1869-1924) was an economist of the Most[185] sugar refinery and that is why his 4 children (Joseph, Erna, Gertrude, Peter) were born in the years (1899-1906) in Bohemia, now defunct Rudelsdorf - Rudolice nad Bílinou.[186]  Then, apparently they lived in what is now the non-existing part of Most - Kopisty (Kopitz[187]) where Arthur died, and where his daughter Erna still got married.  All Arthur’s children, however, died in Germany, where they were having been expelled from Czechoslovakia.

            Josef (1899-1957) went to Munich, where he served as the general secretary of "Deutchen Touring Clubs.”  He later died childless suffering the consequences of his Russian captivity.

            Gertrude (1904- after 1970) left with her husband, Dr. Walter Reif to Aachen, where he became the director of a big manufacturer of needles - 3,000 employees.  Their son Hannes worked after graduating in management, in the export department of one of Munich companies.

            Ernestina (*1901- after 1970) married Dipl. Ing. Ernst Hauschild, an engineer and plant manager of the largest mine in Bohemia, who was during the post-war expulsion taken to a Czech concentration camp.  Both were then deported to Bavaria, where they worked with cattle and were "allowed" to sleep in the stable.  Her sister Gertrude then took them to Aachen to live with her, and Erna later worked as a drafter of plans in a factory for metal goods.  Her husband Ernst, who later died from his wounds he collected in the concentration camp, worked as a clerk.  Then Ernestine began teaching, because in Prague she she had acquired teacher training qualifications.  She found employment in Oberhausen, where her two sons also lived.

            The youngest Peter Baron von Kutschera (1906 - after 1970) was seriously wounded in an unfortunate  attempt to defuse a mine and practically blinded during the war in Russia .  Originally maltster, he retrained to be a masseur and moved with his family to Karlovy Vary (Carlsbad).  After the coup he had to leave and found work at his sister Gertude's in Lüdenscheid where he was the city clerk and there led a happy life.  The bearer of the name “von Kutschera” was his daughter Ulrike (1940-2014), who married Wilfried Hoffmeister and had three children.[188]

 

Thus, in this generation, the line of Barons von Kutschera died out  in the male line. But now back to Věž.

 

 

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The coat of arms of von Kutschera in  Siebmacher

 

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Eduard Karl Edler von Krziwanek (1844-1896), the owner of Věž

Eduard Krziwanek the younger, was born in Vez 4. 11. 1844 remained the only male descendant.  His godfather was Thaddeus and some cousin name Karl Resi.  In the years 1855-1856 he studied  the first year of the lower secondary school run by the Norbertines in Německý Brod.[189]  Then, he probably, moved to German Jihlava.  In the years 1861-2 he graduated from AE Komers’s higher agricultural school in Libwerda.[190]  According to the stenographic protocol on 19 April 1861 his father suggested at the Provincial Assembly the liberation "Befreiung" of farmers’ sons who completed an agricultural school with excellent results. (From what had they have been freed - honestly we do not know.)

 

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Eduard Carl Edler von Krziwanek (1844-1896)[191]

 

We can find "Edward Křiwanek, Wirtschaftsadjunkt, Charwatetz[192]" On the lists of honored guests and members who took part  in the General Assembly of the Czech Forestry Association (General Versammlung des böhmischen Forstvereines) in Mladá Boleslav in 1863 and from 7. - 9.th August 1865. [193]  

 

When his parents died in 1876, he was 32 years old and it is likely that the estate has been taken over by him already.  The manor was officialy transferred according to the Charter of the Regional Court in Kutná Hora, in 1879.[194] 

 

The Schematisms for the years 1880-1881 list him not only as the owner, but also as the administrator of the Věž estate.

 

Early in 1880, however, the farm was affected by a great fire during which a commemorative book written in Latin burned.  The whole castle chapel also burned down, where there was the castle tomb, as well as a part of a residential building.  The remaining part of the castle was rescued by firefighters from Brod.  Nothing from the chapel was rescued, nobody knew anything about the key; whether it was a result of a confusion or an intention, it could not be explained. [195]

 

In 1881 the Schematism reported the total area of ​​312.15 hectares; the distillery and brewery were out of operation.  Apart from the normal cereals, cole, potatoes and clover were also grown,

 

 In 1881, Eduard Edler von Krziwanek the younger sold the Věž estate together with the Veselsko farm to Dr. Antonín Waldert, Prague lawyer, for 165.000 Gulden (of Austrian currency).  Dr. Waldert had worked with his father in the years 1861-1862 then as the Chomutov lawyer in the provincial assembly.  In 1881 he was the deputy to the supreme marshal of the provincial parliament and an assessor to the provincial committee.  So at the time, in the years 1877-1882, Dr. Waldert sat in the Bohemian parliament together with a brother-in-law of the seller Eduard Krziwanek, Karl Baron von Kutschera . Dr. Waldert sold everything in 1884 for 155.000, to Dr. Gustav Jahn.  In 1882 the Věž chapel of the castle was repaired and according to the Chronicle ,"a model property manager” Hladik hid a soldered metal locker with a memorable deed into its cupola. "

 

 

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Most likely Eduard Karl Edler von Krziwanek (1844-1896) year 1862 (M. L. Winter, Photograph, PRAG, Graben 988)[196]

 

According to the Bohemia daily on 25. April 1882 Eduard v. Krziwanek, Gutsbesitzer aus Deutschbrod“ is among the guests who checked in at the hotel Erzherzog Stephan „U Arcivévody Štěpána“ (later Šroubek, even later rebuilt as Europa) on Václavské náměstí[197]

 

Eduard von Krziwanek Jr. lived at that time on the first floor of the so called "New house" No. 62, where he moved after the sale of the estate.  It was made on the  condition that the whole floor was reserved for his free use from the buyer Meisel, who had bought the house from the Krziwaneks by the 40s.  He had also catered meals brought to him for which he invoiced a considerable part of the outstanding balance from the purchase price of the house and the debt was eventually cleared.  Meisel descendants still live today in the Slovak Republic.

 

In 1877 Eduard von Krziwanek sits on the local council and in 1887 he sat on the first local school board.  In 1887 a new school was consecrated and Eduard Edler von Krziwánek marched at the head of the procession, having been appointed the local school supervisor.  The whole spectacular event is described in detail in the local chronicle. The local chronicle remembered Eduard Krziwanek elsewhere: "He was on familiar terms with all the citizens, with whom he liked to sit in the pub."

 

But he died unmarried and childless on 2 December 1896 at age 52 of pneumonia, buried at St. Adalbert Cemetery in Německý Brod to the grave no. 5/188. The register says that „Eduard šlechtic ze Křivánků a former owner of the manor Věž, now an unemployed private person died in house nr. 62 of tuberculosis according to the death certificate.”

 

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The death notice of Eduard von Křivánek (1844-1896 )[198]

 

 

Below the difficult to read “Zde odpočívá”  - Final Resting place the grave still (2016) has a very legible inscription "Eduard ze Křivánků" born November 4, 1844, d. 12 February 1896 on the foot of the tombstone, on which there is a cross fixed to the cemetery wall.  It can be found in the middle of the wall, in which there is a gateway. one can easily read “Eduard ze Křivánků”.

 

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The detail of the grave „H67“ at St. Adalbert Cemetery in Německý (today Havlickuv) Brod in 2015

 

Here apparently extinguished the history of the noble family von Krziwanek in the male line.  And since we already know the story of Ernestine married Baroness von Kutschera we will return to Marie Brzorádová in a separate chapter "Familie Brzorád" and later on, in the female line only Hermine married Prziborská remains.

 

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Hermine von Krziwanek (1839-1908) and Julius Příborský (1824-1905)[199]

Hermine born Krziwanek (1839-1908) married the agricultural director Julius Prziborsky (1824-1905) in 1857.  The witnesses were the bride’s uncle Thaddeus Baron von Herites and the groom’s uncle Anton Emanuel Komers ( 1814-1893).  Komers family was, as we shall see, quite patriotic i.e. pro-Austria oriented.  That is probably why they preferred communicating in German.  In a letter Hermine’s niece (Anna Dostálová née Brzorádová) alludes to the linguistic orientation of the family, when she writes about the teachers’s poor knowledge of Czech at the Czech schools in America, "German women, who have picked up some Czech language. (They know about as much , or even not so much as  Příborský family members)."[200]  Anna mentioned the Příborskýs family several times.  We read about it but later on, where we write about the adoption and marriage of Leo Prziborsky, who became a bridge to families Voith and Herites.

 

 

 

Familie Prziborski

 

 

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Coat of arms of Příborský[201]

 

The Příborský family came to Humpolec in the late 17th century.  A legend tells of a widow with two sons.  Of Julio's ancestors let’s mention Jakub Příborský (1732-1812), who, after The Patent of Tolerantion had been issued joined the Protestants in 1781.  He married a protestant in 1783 and came to Humpolec and when an evangelical priest and teacher came to Humpolec, they both received and shared accommodations at Jakub Příborský’s.  The community worships were in the barn of this leading member of the community in summer and in the winter directly in his apartment.  In 1797, however, a Protestant pastor Vojtěch Špinar "dealt a heavy blow to the Evangelical Church's choir.  He left them, having converted to the Catholic faith.[202]  "His example was followed by several families.  The family of Jakub's son František Saleský[203] (1769-1822) was among them.  Jakub was a weaver, a cloth salesman and Mayor of Humpolec, who even received his coat of arms from Emperor Francis I (resp. II.), for serving his country by manufacturing uniforms for the army in his factory.  The coat of arms was then used by his family for generations.  Unfortunately the relevant document burned in Humpolec in 1901.  The sealer with the coat of arms, however, was in the possession of his descendant Kamillo Příborský, who also used the walking stick with the same coat of arms on the handle as late as after WW2.  The coat of arms can be seen on the tin (silver?) tray, which is owned by the descendants to this date.

 

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Příborský Ernst ( 1803-1878)

 

A very important figure for other family history was Franz's son Ernst (1803-1878), the director of Count Collonitz’s estates  in Gross-Schützen in Hungary, who lived with his employer on friendly terms. His efficiency and foresight earned him a considerable fortune.  Since he remained unmarried, he donated this to the educational and family foundation for the descendants of his siblings.  Originally it was about 160,000 gulden, from which before the war over hundred people drew/benefited.  A new school was built in Humpolec from the foundation money in the years 1907-8.  Despite the war and inflation 450 000 CZK still remained in the foundation  in 1936.  The last chairman of the board of trustees had to, in 1945, pass all the assets on to the state, and he himself, despite being a bank clerk, was placed into production work.

            What we also know about Ernest is that he that he sealed the same way as his father with the family crest.  His will is also interesting because it expresses fear of the so-called "apparent death" and coming back alive after his burial.  L. Miksch believes that Ernst read terrifying novella of EA Poe's "The Premature Burial".  Therefore he expressly asks that his body was to be laid after his death in a room until the doctor arrives, and performs some operation on him – such as cutting of his veins – which will make his revival impossible.

 

Kajetán Příborský (1796-1870)

 

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Kajetán Příborsky’s grave stone at Humpolec’s cemetary [204]

 

Of course we are also interested in Ernst's brother Kajetan (1796-1870), also a master draper and merchant after his father, whose business dealings, however, extended far beyond the borders of the Austro - Hungarian monarchy.  Kajetan, Julius's father was a one-eyed commander in 1848 Humpolec’s National Guard, consisting of 200 townspeople.  He was nicknamed "Žižka" after a wild (brave) Hussite leader. (In the German typescript copy preserved by the descendants there is a word " braven" written in hand above the original " wilden").  Whether they had other common characteristics is unknown.  Anyway, he left a reputation as a strong and hard man.  Kajetán’s wife Kateřina, the daughter of a draper Matouš Komers was the godmother of Humpolec National Guard’s flag, which was donated by her brother AE Komers, at the value of 300 gulden.

 

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Kateřina Příborská born Komers *1799[205]

 

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Grave stone of Kateřina Příborská, born Komersová, in Humpolec’s cemetary[206]

 

Kajetán’s son, Julius Příborský was the head of the family foundation set up by his uncle and he outlived all his siblings.  He actively participated in the lives of his close ones and so let us first talk about them.  There were 12 siblings of Julius Příborský, who were the children of the owner of a textile factory in Humpolec Kajetán and Kateřina, sister of the knight Komers and barons of Lindenbach. 

            Let’s mention at least the officers who chose the path of their uncles - Lieutenant Emanuel (1831-1859), who was killed in Italy and captain Mořic / Maurice (1822 -1854), who died of cholera in Venice.  Maurice was a very young captain but mainly a friend of KH Borovský from his youth, when together  they were reportedly the terrors of Brod’s grammar school.  Also Havlíček’s letter of January 1839, which is "the first evidence of his “Czechness", because in it he renounced German language " taking hold of the holy melodious mother tongue", was sent to Maurice.[207]  In response, Moritz also wrote: "... So hear the advice, from although immature, nevertheless your sincere friend: move away, step away, because you are not worthy to accede to the altar; you can be a good teacher in the Jesuit order, but will you be also a good priest?"[208]

            Of the other brothers we should  also mention Eduard (1835-1856), who died by falling into a boiler in the brewery.

            Karl (1837-1895), director of the estate of His Serene Highness Prince Kinsky in Chrudim, graduated as one of the first from the Libverda school.  He was a member of administration board of the local sugar refinery, a member of the local school board and member of many humanitarian and patriotic groups.[209]  Let’s us mention that his wife Hermine was born Hanl von Kirchtreu, and her brother later married Julius Prziborsky’s daughter Angela.

            Brother Herrman (1834-1883) studied engineering in Prague and Vienna.  He was active in the construction of railway Prague-Duchcov-Most. There he was also an inspector and later an Administrative Director.  For some time he lived in England, where he contracted a lung disease, of which he died.  One of his daughters was married to the court councilor (Hofrath) and the head of the department of Imperial Finance Ministery,  Robert von Zverina; the descendant of the second daughter is an economist  Leonhard Miksch; the  third daughter worked as a teacher of piano and singing in Berlin.

            Finally, brother Kajetan (1830-1883) owned a textile factory in Humpolec.  His son Kamillo, an authorized representative and director of the insurance association of Austro-Hungarian sugar industry in Prague, stayed at Julius’s in Štěpánská street, and also took over the administration of the foundation.  At an advanced age - 50 years old he married a Jewish woman Elsa Grimm, who was in 1943 under the pretext of some sort arrested; Kamillo died due to this strain.  Elsa subsequently died in a concentration camp.  Their apartment, which at that time comprised of the majority of family treasures and documents was officially cleared up and nothing remained. They were childless.

             Kamillo had a sister Herma who married a pharmacist  Otto Schreiber.  Their son, Jaroslav Schreiber was adopted by Kamillo.  But he was the last chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Příborský foundation.  In 1945, he had to hand over all assets to the state and in the fifties he was even as a bank clerk forced to work in production industry.  He died in 1974/5. Jaroslav's daughter Sonja is now apparently the last surviving bearer of this name.[210]  Jaroslav had a sister Milada, married Blažková, author of the book Legends of the Příborský family, whose grandson, MUDr.[211] Pávek  is the owner of the family archives now.

            From the position that Julius and his brothers attained, it is clear that the financial support from their father's brother Ernst, along with the influence of their mother’s siblings  - barons Komers von Lindenbach and knight Komers - were of great importance.  We can even say that without a closer acquaintance with the family Komers it would be difficult to understand the future events in the following generations of the Příborský family.

 

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Familie Komers[212]

Due to the early death of his first wife and through his trading in cloth and fabric in Humpolec Matouš Komers attained a decent fortune.  Thus the two oldest sons, later Barons von Lindenbach, managed to graduate in law.  Karl Eduard Baron von Lindenbach (1794-1870) became a military auditor, the general and court auditor and chief of a section of the War Department, and was awarded the Order of Leopold (1854 - Ritterstand), the Order of the Iron Crown II. Class (1862 - Freiherrenstand) and the papal Order of Christ.  He was a landowner at Vlásenice and Lipková Voda, where he and his descendants lived.[213]  Emanuel Heinrich Baron von Lindenbach (1808-1889) was a lawyer, president of the Higher Regional Court and the Austrian Minister of Justice, Knight of the Order of Leopold (1858 - Ritterstand).  In 1867 he asked to be dismissed from his position at the Minister of Justice and for his services he was awarded the Grand Cross of the Leopold order, and in 1869 was promoted to Baron and received his coat of arms.  He died at the castle Žak (Žáky) near Čáslav.

 

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The coat of arms of Emanuel Heinrich baron von Lindenbach (since 1869)

 

 

Anton Emanuel Ritter von Komers  (1814-1893)

Due to failures in business the Komers family became poor and the younger son Antonín Emanuel (1814-1893) managed to finish only high school; he had 15 siblings in total.  Antonin Emanuel started work in agriculture. “A turnover in his fate came unexpectedly.  When Count Franz Thun Hohenstein the younger took over the administration of all his father's estates, he was looking for a secretary.  Older officials alerted him to AE Komers, to his talents and abilities.  He was accepted and worked to the full satisfaction of the young nobleman.  It was neither a small nor an easy task.  Patrimonial nobility at the time had great power and responsibility.  The owner of the manor had to make many decisions personally and had extensive correspondence, demanding from his secretary wide views, practical experience, education, knowledge and fast readiness.  The two young men soon developed a warm friendship.  Even late in life Thun Francis used to say that he considered the choice of Komers as his secretary and adviser the  happiest act of his life."[214]

 

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Anton Emanuel Ritter von Komers (1814-1893)[215]

 

Count Thun even paid for Komers for his studies at Hohenheim economic school near Stuttgart together with the costs of study tours during the holidays. He did so on the basis of good experience with his work, but also through an intercession.  VV Tomek writes: "The favor was procured by two of his older brothers, who were classmates with young Count Franz and Leo Thun at the law faculty of the Prague University."[216] 

            Then, in 1840, Komers became the director of the estate in Peruc. František Palacký had advised VV Tomek to organize Thun’s archive.  He then writes: "The director or the head of the farm was Komers, now a renowned economic councilor and a wealthy businessman, at that time a handsome young man, twenty seven years old.  I was very interested in getting to know him.  But by then it was already obvious to observe that the man was seeking to achieve something bigger in honor and in wealth.”[217]  On the estate production greatly increased as a result of the reforms which were introduced.  In the years 1842-3, when there was great poverty, Komers proved successful, as he suggested to the manorial lords that they supply various extra work to ensure that the people were earning money from autumn until the new harvest, a total of 9 months.  Count Franz Thun (1809-1870) was as the first-born, an heir to ancestral property and in 1844 he appointed Komers the central director of his estate.  As a result of his misalliance marriage, however, the succession was abandoned.

 

Count Franz Thun Hohenstein (1809-1870)[218]

 

            In 1845 Komers married the daughter of a rich Prague citizen Jan Jindřich, Marie Kateřina.  She, however, suffered for a long time from tuberculosis.  A dedicated husband,  Komers saw to her regular stays in the Swiss Alps in Merano, Nice and other spas.[219]

            In 1849, as we know, KH Borovský resigned from his Parliamentary position in the Imperial Council and in his place Komers was elected.  In the National Literary Archive we find this letter Komers wrote to Havlíček:  "I just received a private message that I was in the Humpolec district elected to parliament.  Wanting to leave there shortly, I hope I will not miss you in Prague, because I will stick around there just for one day.  Please write me a brief message, where in the morning or in the afternoon I can catch you.  I'd like to talk to you about some important things.  That as your successor / although without your excellent skills / - I will join your side, as a valiant federalist, a Bohemian by body and soul, loving our nation and homeland - is no need to describe further."

            Since 1849 the central headquarters of Thun’s goods moved to Prague, where it was at the address of Komers’ in Štěpánská Street No. 633 / II.

            In 1850, on Komer’s initiative, The Patriotic - Economic Society, of which he was a decisive member, established the agricultural school in Libverda near Děčín, where he became director himself.  This in its time was a very progressive and important institution , where the lectures were also introduced by Komers in Czech, and was attended by a number of Příborský family members. [220]  Count Chotek ordered that the places of economic officials could only  be given to those who would be able to produce a certificate from the Libverda agricultural school.[221] Later in 1900 the school  was taken over by the German Polytechnic Institute.

            Komers was closely watched by Count Jindřich Chotek in the agricultural publications  of The Patriotic Economic Society and acquired himself his book about the Peruc exemplary estate.[222]  Already in the 50s he would drive there himself and make notes about his crop rotation system.  In 1856 Komers decided to invest a substantial dowry of his wife into agriculture.  In his scientific work he devoted himself to sugar and in the fifties he published a substantial systematic work about it.[223]  Then he became a partner of Count Jindřich Chotek in building a sugar refinery in Veltrusy - in Úžice.  He pledged to introduce the cultivation of beets, while there would not be a decrease in other agricultural regime.  For its engagement in Thun services, he commissioned Julius Příborský to do the immediate management.[224]  As a result, Komers took over the inspection of Veltrusy and later the Nové Dvory farm.  Thus in 1859 a new central authority began  - The Chief Directorate which managed both Chotek estates.[225]

 

By analysis of Veltrusy estate’s management Komers detected that it was on the edge of possible losses, and therefore took over the milk production and put it under his own supervision.  He created better records of budgets by industry and of individual farms and leased unprofitable farms.[226]  Besides the cost savings he focused on economic education of the clerks.  By the accounting revisions in 1860 he found that the highest expenditure consisted of pension payments for former employees.  He carried out the headcount reduction and redeployment.  To improve yield and grain farms beet cultivation he set target numbers to be achieved in production by a specific date.  In the case of non-compliance with these standards, he threatened by leasing such courts.  In cattle breeding he focused on efficient species and increase of milk yield.[227]

            By 1858 he had also built the sugar refinery in Peruc, where the Count Thun joined him as a companion.  Having successfully built the Úžice refinery, Komers built another one in Ovčáry in 1860 for which he bought new machines from Daněk et al company from Karlín and for better transport of material he had railway siding built there.[228]

            Komers supported his hometown Humpolec, where he very generously contributed to the building of a school, created an endowment fund for it and the construction of the Evangelical church and a hospital.  For example, when in 1861 he read in Čas magazine that executors were visiting Humpolec’s cloth makers, he sent 100 gulden to the city council to  help those poor who fell in debt.